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Activity: critical analysis of Archaeopteryx

Some scientists consider Archaeopteryx to be a transitional fossil between dinosaurs and birds. Other scientists disagree. Below are two arguments given by scientists to support their interpretation that Archaeopteryx is not a transitional fossil between dinosaurs and birds. For each of these arguments, state whether the scientists are questioning the DATA, or the CONCLUSIONS about the Archaeopteryx fossil.

  1. Watkins, Hoyle, Wickramasinghe, Watkins, Rabilizirov and Spetner (1985) published an article where they claimed that the feather impressions of Archaeopteryx were forged. They provide evidence suggesting that chicken feathers were pressed into a cement mix, and these were applied over dinosaur fossils: Watkins, R.S., Fred Hoyle, N.C. Wickramasinghe, J. Watkins, R. Rabilizirov, andL.M. Spetner (1985), “ Archaeopteryx : A Photographic Study,” British Journal of Photography, 132:264-266, March 8.

    These scientists are questioning the DATA / CONCLUSIONS made by other scientists about Archaeopteryx .

  2. Some scientists argue that even if the feathers on Archaeopteryx were not forged, there is no evidence that the fossil is transitional between reptiles and birds, since the fossil is compatible with the fossil of a bird.

    These scientists are questioning the DATA / CONCLUSIONS made by other scientists about Archaeopteryx .

  3. Some scientists argue that birds have been found in younger rocks than the rocks in which Archaeopteryx was found, and so Archaeopteryx cannot be the ancestor to birds.

    These scientists are questioning the DATA / CONCLUSIONS made by other scientists about Archaeopteryx .

  1. Data
  2. Conclusions
  3. Conclusions

In 1938, an East London fisherman caught a deep-sea fish he had never seen, so it was taken to the East London museum, where it was identified as a coelacanthby Professor JLB Smith and his assistant, Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer. This caused an international uproar, because the fish was previously known only fromfossils and had been believed to be extinct. People were amazed that fossil coelacanth found in rock strata 70 –350 million years old could look exactly like the large blue fish before their eyes! This started a search for more specimens and 14 years later, another one was caught off the Comoro Islands inthe Indian Ocean, north of Madagascar and more have been found since, including in deep crevices at St. Lucia in northern KZN.

Coelacanth display
Madge Courtenay-Latimer and the coelacanth

Scientists agree that the coelacanth is probably the oldest living vertebrate and they are thought to be closely related to the freshwater fish that is seenas the ancestor of all land animals. The coelacanth’s internal organs are in many ways similar to those of amphibians, which are the earliest life formsto have colonized land. Unlike amphibians, its spine is supported by a permanent notochord, a cartilage and oil tube – it never develops a bony vertebral column like other fish do. The body is lobe-finned, not ray-finned like modern fish,although it is not known to “walk” on the ocean floor. Many scientists had thought that the coelacanth’s fins looked like“legs” (it was referred to as ‘old four legs’) and that it was in the process of developing limbs for use on land, but here was aspecimen, millions of years later, that still had the same fin structure. Its nostrils are also not blind-ending as in fish; they open into the mouth and can be used for breathing.

Assignment:

The modern coelacanth-finding throws doubt on an assumption palaeontologists use when reasoning about what the fossil record says about extinctions.
  1. What is the assumption the modern coelacanth-finding throws doubt on?
  2. How does the modern coelacanth-finding throw doubt on this assumption ?
An extinction event can be recognised by fossils of that type not being found in higher (i.e. younger) rock. Although no coelacanth fossils are found in rock younger than that assumed to be100 million years old, coelacanths are not extinct: they are alive today (extant).

Questions & Answers

what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
hi
Adu
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
hi vedant can u help me with some assignments
Solomon
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
hi
Ayuba
Hello
opoku
hi
Ali
greetings from Iran
Ali
salut. from Algeria
Bach
hi
Nharnhar
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
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SUBHIKSHA
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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