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Somewhere else on the earth, in the middle of the desolate open sea, a volcano forces its way to find its place in the sun and a new island is born. Tsunamis develop and they flood and destroy the low-lying land of bays and islands.

Death and birth. Below the drifting crust of our struggling planet lies a stirring world of molten rock. In the process that has continued through the ages, it may erupt to destroy what lies above, but also, surprisingly, to create.

[ Huisgenoot se Jongspan , 4 June 1987 ]

We have seen that volcanoes can also have positive effects. Solidifying lava forms igneous rock, in which precious stones like diamonds are created. Where this occurs, financial welfare follows.

Fertile soils are created when these rocks that originate from lava are eroded over millions of years and such soils nurture crops. In this way, the world is provided with food.

Hot water springs occur near volcanoes. These warm springs naturally become tourist attractions. In cold countries such warm water is even used to supply buildings with hot water and to heat them.

Activity 2:

To discuss the consequences of volcanoes on people and their environment

[lo 2.1, 2.2]

1. Discuss the article that is printed above in your groups once you have read it, to explain the effect of volcanoes on:

a) People

b) The environment

2. Collect pictures, photos and newspaper cuttings dealing with volcanoes. Bring them to class for discussion. Use the material you have collected to supplement your notes.

3. Why some people are at a higher risk to be affected by volcanoes than others

Disasters happen anywhere, but looking at figure 8 discloses that volcanoes occur more often in certain areas.

People knowingly settle in the vicinity of a volcano. Sometimes such an area is densely populated, as people regard work opportunities and prosperity as more important than a potential volcanic eruption.

As in the case of earthquakes, developed areas can handle the impact of a volcanic eruption with much more ease and efficiency. Warnings can be broadcast in time and evacuation carried out if necessary. After care services are available and lives are saved.

Where densely populated areas in developing countries are concentrated near a volcano, big problems are likely to develop. Communication systems are poorly developed and people are therefore not warned in time. Health care is poor and emergency services lacking. Fires cause destruction and loss of lives. After care services are insufficient and many people die because they cannot be helped in time.

4. Precautionary measures: the management of risk and reduction of risk

Scientists constantly study the world’s active volcanoes and try to predict their behaviour. Sometimes they succeed, but mostly they do not. We are unable to see what happens in the depths of the earth’s crust and for that reason emergency measures in volcanic areas are so important.

Activity 3:

To reflect on emergency measures in volcanic danger zones

[lo 2.3]

1. Why do people decide to live in areas where volcanic eruptions occur? Take some time to consider this and then give your own opinion.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11021/1.1
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