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Economic and management sciences

Grade 8

The economic cycle

Module 1

The historical development of currency/money

Assessment standard 1.1:

The historical development of currency/money

When you have completed this MODULE, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CURRENCY AND THE ROLE THAT IT PLAYS IN SOCIETIES AND THEIR ECONOMY.

The economic life of nations shows clear phases of development. The first of these development phases is always represented as the SELF-SUFFICIENT stage. The most characteristic feature of the self-provident phase is SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY, in which each family or person produces enough to provide in their own needs. The individual or family practised PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE, which produced enough for his/their own needs. The self-provident stage therefore did not need barter, or a medium of exchange, because production did NOT result in ANY SURPLUS. The economy / family had no need for a MEDIUM OF EXHANGE or CURRENCY / MONEY as we know it.

Activity 1

SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY

GROUP:

Your group has survived the accident that forced the aeroplane in which you were travelling to crash down on a remote island. Having regained consciousness, you find that the wreck of the aeroplane was destroyed in an explosion after the disaster. The island is small and has a relatively high rainfall.

HOW WILL YOU GO ABOUT TO PROVIDE IN YOUR NEEDS IN ORDER TO ENSURE SURVIVAL? (Suggestion: Begin by determining what your immediate needs are). (Submit a brief list.)

GROUPS:

Try to identify the characteristic features of an economic situation in which you have to be self-sufficient.

During the next phase of economic development, which is characterised by SPECIALISATION, SURPLUSES AND EXCHANGE, communities/families produced sufficient products to have surpluses that they could exchange for other products that they needed.

EXAMPLE:

John, being skilled in making garments from animal pelts, was able to concentrate on doing that (i.e. he SPECIALISED in the production of clothing) and could use the extra garments that he did not need himself (SURPLUS) to engage in EXCHANGE for Peter’s SURPLUS of flour and related wheat products. This is how the first MARKETS, where BUYERS and SELLERS “met” and exchanged their SURPLUSES, came into being.

Activity 2

SPECIALISATION

SELF:

Design and build a model of a house, using stiff paper or cardboard, according to your own ideas.

Activity 3

SPECIALISATION AND DIVISION OF LABOUR

GROUP:

Design and build a model of a house, using stiff paper or cardboard, according to your own ideas. For this exercise, the planning and building of different component parts of the house must be delegated to different members of the group. One might be responsible for the roof, another for the walls, a third for the general framework, etc.

(Note: The different parts will have to be fitted together to form a whole.)

GROUP:

Compile a list of advantages and disadvantages of specialisation as encountered in this group work exercise.

ADVANTAGES OF SPECIALISATION DISADVANTAGES OF SPECIALISATION
1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.

Questions & Answers

what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
hi
Adu
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
hi
Ayuba
Hello
opoku
hi
Ali
greetings from Iran
Ali
salut. from Algeria
Bach
hi
Nharnhar
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic and management sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11040/1.1
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