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English home language

Grade 4

Fears and phobias

Module 9


Ann drew these six sharks for a class project on scary things in the sea. She wrote a description of each, but forgot to number them.

“Now I don’t know which is which,” she said.

Hammerhead shark. Up to 4 metres long. It is slate-grey in colour. It has a wide flattened body and an oddly-shaped hammerhead with eyes on the head and mouth underneath. It has pointed, very fine saw-like teeth.

Blue shark. Length - up to 5 metres. Its back is blue-black, getting lighter in colour, with grey-white underbelly. It has a very slim, streamlined body and long pointed snout.

Man-eater shark. Length from 3 to 6 metres (also up to 12m). Its colour is dark grey-brown to slate blue along back, dirty white underneath. The powerful rounded body has a blunt snout. It has long gill slits. Its teeth are large and triangular with saw-like edges. This shark is very dangerous to man.

Thresher shark. Up to 3 metres long. It is dark blue to light greyish-blue in colour. The body is slender with a blunt snout. It has a very long upper tail (almost half its body length). It uses this long tail to herd shoals of sardines, mackerel and herrings.

Smooth hound. Up to 2 metres long. Its colour is grey to grey-brown, lighter underneath. It has white spots on its back and slender body. Its snout is long and blunt.

Grey shark. From 1 to 2 metres long (sometimes up to 6 m). It is grey in colour, lighter underneath. It has a long upper tail, and only one dorsal (back) fin. It has six gill slits. This shark usually lives in deep waters.

Activity 1

To scan for details and follow descriptions [lo 3.10.2, 3.10.3]

  1. Write down the names of all the sharks that Ann drew and then read her description of each one. Decide which label goes with which picture and put the right number by each name.

Activity 2

To identify main and supporting ideas [lo 3.10.1]

  1. Answer these questions about the sharks in full sentences.
  • What does the Thresher shark do with its tail?
  • Which shark do you think looks strangest?
  • Which shark is the most dangerous to man?
  • What does a shark use its gills for?

Do you know any more about sharks? See if your group can find more facts and stories about them.


Would you believe it that some people have a FEAR OF WORDS? It is called VERBOPHOBIA. I would like to ensure that you never suffer from this phobia. Here are some exercises to show you that words can be FUN.


Little miss Muffet

Sat on her tuffet

Eating her curds and whey.

There came a big spider

And sat down beside her

And frightened Miss Muffet away!


Remains on her tuffet

And hasn’t been frightened away.

The spider, downhearted

And dizzy, departed

Repelled by her pressurised spray.

Isn’t that clever? You can do it too. You need to notice two tricks:

  1. Rhyme: The poet uses the same rhyming pattern as the original poem. Lines 1 and 2 rhyme; lines 4 and 5 rhyme; lines 3 and 6 rhyme.
  2. Rhythm: You can clap the rhythm and see that it is the same in both poems.

Now you try these two tricks on a well-known nursery rhyme. Use “Three Blind Mice” or “Mary Had a Little Lamb” and see what fun version you can create.


  • Let me introduce you to PALINDROMES. These are words or sentences that read the same backwards as forwards. Take a look.

Neil, an alien

Party trap

Activity 3

To learn about palindromes [lo 4.4.1]

  • Use the clues to find the correct palindromes. Learn to spell them.

1. …………… 2. ……………… 3. …………..…… 4. ………………………...……

  1. flat and even ………………………………….
  2. midday; 12 o’clock in the day time ………………………………….
  3. worn under the chin of a baby ………………………………….
  4. another name for mother ………………………………….
  5. another name for father ………………………………….
  6. things done by people on their own ………………………………….
  7. having to do with a city or town ………………………………….
  8. something done; an action ………………………………….

Words to help you

solos noon ewe kayak civic bib level eye mom nun deed dad

This is a PALINDROME sentence and Napoleon Bonaparte wrote it when he took ill at a place called Elba . “ Able was I ere I saw Elba.”

  • Try some of your own.


LEARNING OUTCOME 3: READING AND VIEWING The learner is able to read and view for information and enjoyment, and to respond critically to the aesthetic, cultural and emotional values in texts.

Assessment Standard

We know this when the learner:

3.10 understands and responds appropriately to information texts:

3.10.1 identifies main and supporting ideas; 3.10.2 scans for specific details in texts (e.g. weather reports, bus timetables, maps);

3.10.2 scans for specific details in texts (e.g. weather reports, bus timetables, maps);

3.10.3 follows short printed instructions and directions.

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING The learner is able to write different kinds of factual and imaginative texts for a wide range of purposes.

Assessment Standard

We know this when the learner:

4.4 applies knowledge of language at various levels:

4.4.1 word level.


Activity 1

Hammerhead shark- 1

Man-eater shark - 3

Blue shark - 2

Thresher shark - 6

Smooth hound - 5

Grey shark - 4

Activity 2

It herds its prey (small fish, such as sardines, herrings and mackerel).

The hammerhead

The man-eater

To breathe

Activity 3

1. eye

2. nun

3. ewe

4. kayak

5. level

6. noon

7. bib

8. mom

9. dad

10. solos

11. civic

12. deed

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, English home language grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 18, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11092/1.1
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