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Social sciences:

Geography

Grade 8

Natural resources

Module 7

Energy and water

Energy

In general terms, energy use in South Africa is inefficient and unsustainable. The country’s estimated share of two per cent to the world’s carbon dioxide production is a disproportionately high contribution to global warming and human-induced climate change. According to the United Nations, on a per capita basis South Africa is the world’s third highest emitter of carbon dioxide. The country should therefore not strive towards generating and selling more power, as it would lead to more pollution. We should rather manage the demand, so that overall consumption is reduced.

More than three quarters of South Africa’s energy is derived from coal, making the country’s dependence on this non-renewable resource one of the highest in the world. However, South Africa has huge coal reserves of more than 58 000 tonnes. About half of the coal mined in South Africa is used to generate electricity. A quarter is used to produce synthetic liquid fuels through the Sasol process, while another quarter is burnt directly by industry or in homes to provide heat.

All the big coal-fired power stations are situated within a 150 km radius of the major coal mines in Mpumalanga. The result is air pollution that some scientists suggest is equal to the worst in the world.

Air pollution poses extremely serious environmental consequences, as a substantial amount of South Africa’s agriculturally productive land and commercial forests, as well as about 25 per cent of its surface water run-off also occur within this region. Direct coal burning by industry and in townships without access to electricity, is also responsible for substantial pollution, resulting in environmental and health problems.

Activity 1:

To explain concepts relating to energy

[lo 1.1]

1. Identify the three natural resources which, according to the text, are not utilised in a sustainable way, and describe their meanings:

2. Why do half of South Africa’s population rely on fuel-wood as a source of energy?

3. Explain the following:

Synthetic fuel

Global warming

Sustainability

Human-induced climate change

A major environmental problem is the fact that an estimated half of South Africa’s population currently still rely on the non-sustainable use of fuel-wood for their energy requirements. If current consumption rates continue, all natural woodlands in the former ‘homeland’ areas could be denuded by 2020.

Although nuclear power does enjoy some support, electricity generated at the Koeberg power station is more expensive that other power in the national network.

Moreover, a number of major environmental and social problems relating to the disposal of dangerous nuclear waste have not yet been solved.

Activity 2:

To find ways to reduce the use of resources

[lo 3.3]

1. Discuss the following statement:

More emphasis should be given to the provision of efficient and accessible public transport, while there should be incentives for making less use of private transport.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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