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Social sciences:

Geography

Grade 8

Natural resources

Module 7

Energy and water

Energy

In general terms, energy use in South Africa is inefficient and unsustainable. The country’s estimated share of two per cent to the world’s carbon dioxide production is a disproportionately high contribution to global warming and human-induced climate change. According to the United Nations, on a per capita basis South Africa is the world’s third highest emitter of carbon dioxide. The country should therefore not strive towards generating and selling more power, as it would lead to more pollution. We should rather manage the demand, so that overall consumption is reduced.

More than three quarters of South Africa’s energy is derived from coal, making the country’s dependence on this non-renewable resource one of the highest in the world. However, South Africa has huge coal reserves of more than 58 000 tonnes. About half of the coal mined in South Africa is used to generate electricity. A quarter is used to produce synthetic liquid fuels through the Sasol process, while another quarter is burnt directly by industry or in homes to provide heat.

All the big coal-fired power stations are situated within a 150 km radius of the major coal mines in Mpumalanga. The result is air pollution that some scientists suggest is equal to the worst in the world.

Air pollution poses extremely serious environmental consequences, as a substantial amount of South Africa’s agriculturally productive land and commercial forests, as well as about 25 per cent of its surface water run-off also occur within this region. Direct coal burning by industry and in townships without access to electricity, is also responsible for substantial pollution, resulting in environmental and health problems.

Activity 1:

To explain concepts relating to energy

[lo 1.1]

1. Identify the three natural resources which, according to the text, are not utilised in a sustainable way, and describe their meanings:

2. Why do half of South Africa’s population rely on fuel-wood as a source of energy?

3. Explain the following:

Synthetic fuel

Global warming

Sustainability

Human-induced climate change

A major environmental problem is the fact that an estimated half of South Africa’s population currently still rely on the non-sustainable use of fuel-wood for their energy requirements. If current consumption rates continue, all natural woodlands in the former ‘homeland’ areas could be denuded by 2020.

Although nuclear power does enjoy some support, electricity generated at the Koeberg power station is more expensive that other power in the national network.

Moreover, a number of major environmental and social problems relating to the disposal of dangerous nuclear waste have not yet been solved.

Activity 2:

To find ways to reduce the use of resources

[lo 3.3]

1. Discuss the following statement:

More emphasis should be given to the provision of efficient and accessible public transport, while there should be incentives for making less use of private transport.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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