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Grade 5

Population: distribution and density

Module 29

Sasol and technology

The development of technology also played an important role in the settlement of people at the coal mines of Mpumalanga.

SASOL was established in the middle of the previous century to manufacture, amongst other things, petroleum from coal. Petroleum and other chemical substances, like artificial fertilizers, have been manufactured in the Northern Free State since 1955.

Further developments in this technology over the next 50 years have had an enormous influence on the settling of people in the Northern Free State and in southwest Mpumalanga. If it had not been possible to manufacture chemical substances from coal, this region would have had a stretch of coal mines now, with only the employment opportunities that these mines can offer. Technology, however, makes drastic changes possible. In addition to the mines, there now are large factories that provide employment to thousands of people in the region.

Industries and industrial areas

South Africa is a fairly prosperous country compared to the rest of Africa. Minerals , fishing , agriculture and forestry provide the foundation of our prosperity.

The products obtained from the above are processed in factories to add value to the primary products and thereby ensure prosperity. Numerous employment opportunities created in the factories, and salaries and wages earned by factory workers create prosperity amongst the people.

The four primary industries are

  • Mining
  • Agriculture
  • Fishing
  • Forestry

The secondary industries where the processing of primary products take place, are:

  • Baking
  • Fuel
  • Canned fruit
  • Jewellery
  • Clothing
  • Fertilizer
  • Furniture
  • Motor industry
  • Shipbuilding
  • Steel
  • Dairy products
  • Processing of fish
  • Armaments

People can do nothing about the location of mines, but many issues are considered with regard to the location of the factories in which the products (of the mines) are processed.

A furniture factory will not necessarily be erected near plantations or a steel factory near the mine where the iron ore is mined. People and their interests play an important part in decisions about where factories should be erected. That is why we have to learn about industries when we study human settlement.

Activity 1:

To investigate the location of industrial areas

[lo 2.2]

What would be an ideal location for a fish-processing factory?

What would be an ideal location for an automobile factory?

The most important industrial areas in South Africa

The most important industrial areas in South Africa are in the following urban areas:

At the coast In the interior
Cape Town and environment
  1. Pretoria and environment
Port Elizabeth
  1. The whole of the Witwatersrand area
East London
  1. Vereeniging / Vanderbijlpark / Sasolburg
  1. Bloemfontein
Richards Bay 5. Kimberley

Activity 2:

To indicate the location of industrial areas in south africa on a map

[lo 1.1]

Write the numbers allocated to the most important industrial areas where the relevant urban areas are on the following map.

The urban areas of the Republic of South Africa

Activity 3:

To recognise the relationship between population distribution and the location of industries

[lo 2.2]

Do you notice any connection between the population density and the concentration of industrial areas? Motivate your answer.


LO 1


The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 with guidance, selects and uses sources of useful geographical information [finds sources];

1.2 distinguishes between facts and opinions [works with sources];

1.3 categorises information [works with sources];

1.4 uses an index to find places on global atlas maps [works with sources];

1.6 identifies and explores possible solutions to problems [answers the question];

1.7 demonstrates knowledge and under-standing of the issue through projects, discussion, debate and charts [communicates the answer].

LO 2


The learner will be able to demonstrate geographical and environmental knowledge and understanding.

We know this when the learner:

2.1 identifies and describes major physical features of South Africa, including those of the home province [people and places];

2.2 identifies links between natural resources and economic activities in South Africa [people and resources];

2.3 describes ways in which the physical environment influences human activity and how human activity is influenced by the physical environment [people and the environment



Where fish resources are

Close to transport network and labour source


Yes, where industries are established, population is denser


- Employment

- Income

- Further training

- More opportunities


- Poor living conditions

- Transport problems

- Perhaps unemployed

- Violence

- Crime

Poorer – desperate for food and clothing and living accommodation

No support






Housing supplied

Medical services supplied

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: geography grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10986/1.2
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