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Achilles and DuVall (1991) described the typical educational leadership program in the late twentieth century as focused on a limited knowledge base that emphasized just two areas. The first area was in the social sciences and included grounding in economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, social studies, and sociology. According to Achilles and Duvall, “This has led to a pseudo-scientific aura that surrounds course content, research methodology, and academic perspective” (p. 16). A knowledge base in educational administration, they suggested, should be framed around two distinct learning areas to have credibility and integrity. The social science area was basic to the profession and depended upon the “theoretical underpinnings that relates concepts and ideas, helps predict behaviors, and at least partially explains phenomena” (p. 16). The emphasis on obtaining knowledge within the social sciences was, as they pointed out, a necessary component of the educational administration curriculum. This area has been the primary focus of learning for the field over the last fifty years.

The second area, however, requires knowledge of self and performance. How well does the principal, superintendent, or other educational leader perform in the position? This is the area that had been neglected by the field as it embraced the rational scientific method. “The application of concepts requires the processing of real time feedback. It requires continuous adjustment, assessment of phenomena, and alteration of courses of action. Performance requires the practitioner to be ‘scholar on one’s feet’” (Achilles&Duvall, 1991, p. 16).

A shortcoming of the typical program in educational leadership at the end of the twentieth century was its focus on the pseudo-scientific rather than the practice of leadership. Students were expected to learn from a curriculum that emphasized theory over practice and measured success by the student’s ability to transfer knowledge through memorization of material from a lecture that described a prescribed practice.

Performance activities

A performance activity requires an active behavior by the student. Being an active participant is key to the learning performance. An active performance similar to the one described below offers insight into how structuring student behavior through a meaningful activity shapes student learning.

A Theory for Leading: Distributed Leadership

Activity #1: evaluating consensus decision-making

Each student will observe a district level team that is focused on an aspect of instructional improvement and complete a consensus protocol based upon team/committee performance. The consensus protocol will be used to observe individual leadership behavior in a group.

Reading: Before observing the team/committee for this assignment read:

  • Spillane, J. P., Halverson, R. and Diamond, J. B. (2004). Towards a theory of leadership practice: a distributed perspective , Journal of Curriculum Studies, 36 (1) 3–34.
  • Berry, J. E. (2005, Winter). Professional leadership accountability: Evaluating the work of educational teams, Education Leadership Review , 6 (1), 9-14.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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