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Achilles and DuVall (1991) described the typical educational leadership program in the late twentieth century as focused on a limited knowledge base that emphasized just two areas. The first area was in the social sciences and included grounding in economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, social studies, and sociology. According to Achilles and Duvall, “This has led to a pseudo-scientific aura that surrounds course content, research methodology, and academic perspective” (p. 16). A knowledge base in educational administration, they suggested, should be framed around two distinct learning areas to have credibility and integrity. The social science area was basic to the profession and depended upon the “theoretical underpinnings that relates concepts and ideas, helps predict behaviors, and at least partially explains phenomena” (p. 16). The emphasis on obtaining knowledge within the social sciences was, as they pointed out, a necessary component of the educational administration curriculum. This area has been the primary focus of learning for the field over the last fifty years.

The second area, however, requires knowledge of self and performance. How well does the principal, superintendent, or other educational leader perform in the position? This is the area that had been neglected by the field as it embraced the rational scientific method. “The application of concepts requires the processing of real time feedback. It requires continuous adjustment, assessment of phenomena, and alteration of courses of action. Performance requires the practitioner to be ‘scholar on one’s feet’” (Achilles&Duvall, 1991, p. 16).

A shortcoming of the typical program in educational leadership at the end of the twentieth century was its focus on the pseudo-scientific rather than the practice of leadership. Students were expected to learn from a curriculum that emphasized theory over practice and measured success by the student’s ability to transfer knowledge through memorization of material from a lecture that described a prescribed practice.

Performance activities

A performance activity requires an active behavior by the student. Being an active participant is key to the learning performance. An active performance similar to the one described below offers insight into how structuring student behavior through a meaningful activity shapes student learning.

A Theory for Leading: Distributed Leadership

Activity #1: evaluating consensus decision-making

Each student will observe a district level team that is focused on an aspect of instructional improvement and complete a consensus protocol based upon team/committee performance. The consensus protocol will be used to observe individual leadership behavior in a group.

Reading: Before observing the team/committee for this assignment read:

  • Spillane, J. P., Halverson, R. and Diamond, J. B. (2004). Towards a theory of leadership practice: a distributed perspective , Journal of Curriculum Studies, 36 (1) 3–34.
  • Berry, J. E. (2005, Winter). Professional leadership accountability: Evaluating the work of educational teams, Education Leadership Review , 6 (1), 9-14.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
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Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
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Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
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what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
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if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
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yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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research.net
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Source:  OpenStax, Performance assessment in educational leadership programs; james berry and ronald williamson, editors. OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11122/1.1
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