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Social sciences


Grade 8

Changing ideas and technology:

The first world war

Module 11

The causes of the first world war

Activity 1:

To discuss territorial expansion and power as a cause of the first world war

[lo 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 2.2]


In 1877 the Russian Tsar, Alexander II, declared war on Turkey. After a year of heavy fighting, the Turks were beaten. According to the peace treaty of 1878, the Treaty of San Stefano, the new state of Bulgaria was created. It incorporated the majority of the Balkan states.

The High Chancellor of Germany, Bismarck, was a peacekeeper who worked tirelessly to create peace treaties between world powers. His Dreikaiserbund (treaty between three kaisers) between Germany (Wilhelm I), Austria-Hungary (Franz Josef) and Russia (Alexander II) of 1872 was in danger because Austria-Hungary was upset about the power Russia gained in the Balkans after the Treaty of San Stefano. These countries still followed an autocratic system of government, like the Turks. Note that the Russians were ruled by a tsar and the Turks by a sultan.

Bismarck requested that the super powers come to Berlin to make their claims to the Balkans, hoping that a peaceful solution could be found. Germany itself was not involved in the Balkans and could thus preside as arbitator. At the Congress of Berlin it was decided that Bulgaria would be recognized as a smaller, independent state. Bulgaria would pay tax to the Sultan of Turkey. Two of its former provinces, Bosnia and Herzegovina, were now ruled by Austria-Hungary. Bessarabia was given to Russia to appease it.

The British Prime Minister, Disraeli, referred to the results of the Berlin Congress as “freedom with honour”, but this freedom did not last long. Although Austro-Hungarian power was firmly

established in the Balkans by this treaty, it also led to resistance by Serbian Nationalists. The Russians were also upset, as their territorial expansion had been halted.

As a political force, Nationalism not only hastened the First World War, but also caused the autocratic governments of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Russia to crumble.

SOURCE A Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English - A S Hornby

tax : sum of money to be paid by citizens (according to income, value of purchases, etc.) to the government for public purposes

civic duties : official life and public affairs of a town or citizen for the (good) benefit of the country

  • Complete :

1. We call Source A a __________ source. /1/

2. I can motivate my answer to question 1: ___________________ /2/

3. Examples of service to ones country are _______________________/2/

4. My parent/guardian’s opinion concerning tax is that it is: essential / unnecessary,

because /2/

5. I think the Bulgarians refused to pay tax to the _____________________________/1/

Because __________________________________________/2/

/ 10 /


1. For what REASON did Bismarck try so hard to organize the Congress of Berlin? /2/

2. The POSITIVE RESULTS that were initially (at the beginning) achieved by the Congress of Berlin, were ____________________________________________________ /2/

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
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