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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The road to democracy in sa

Module 8

Apartheid ends – human rights begin

By the time F.W. de Klerk succeeded P.W. Botha as president in 1989, SA had been plunged into a situation of worsening crisis because of international sanctions. The government realised that they could not govern without a state of emergency and that they had no choice but to negotiate with the black majority. On 2 February 1990, the bans on the ANC, PAC, SACP and 33 other organisations were lifted. Nine days later, on 11 February, Nelson Mandela was released from jail after 27 years. (SWA, the present Namibia, became independent in the same year.) The Group Areas Act was repealed in 1991.


The last of the apartheid laws were abolished during 1991 and 1992 and the government started negotiations with the ANC for the first time, after 78 years. This led to the Groote Schuur Agreement. CODESA (Convention for a Democratic South Africa) began. This comprised a series of meetings, during which the various political parties and organisations negotiated in order to establish a temporary, fair and democratic constitution. The date for an election in 1994 was agreed to at the end of 1993.

Activity 1:

To reconstruct the past

[lo 3.3]

(a) Discuss the following three sources in class. Relate the event from the perspective of the different leaders. Also use your own sources.



Negotiations between Mandela and De Klerk


Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk receive the Nobel Prize for Peace.

From: Benjamin, A. 1990. The Alternative Mandela Album. Johannesburg: Argus.

Activity 2:

Constantly be aware of more than one point of view of the past

[lo 3.1]

(a) The sources provided reflect the points of view during the 90’s. When you play the role of historian, you should select and present (communicate) information from different sources. Answer the questions on the provided sources in your groups.


The Sowetan , 12 July 1990


Die Burger , 10 May 1990

  • What do the dark clouds represent (source A)?
  • Why is everyone in a hurry to get away from the dark clouds (source B)?
  • Does source B suggest that the dark clouds disappeared in the 90's? Motivate your answer.
  • Would you take both sources as valuable regarding South African history of the 90's?


The ANC won the first election and Nelson Mandela became the first black president of the "new SA."

(c) Describe the thoughts of the two leaders.

  • How did the world experience the event?
  • How does the new constitution of SA support human rights?

The largest number of heads of state and important leaders ever to attend an inauguration ceremony, gathered for president Nelson Mandela's inauguration. SA was welcomed into the world community with open arms once more. Here are some examples of what this meant:

  • In May 1994, after more than 30 years' absence, SA was readmitted as a member of the OAU (Organisation of African Unity).
  • On 23 July 1994 SA could take a place at a meeting of the UNO for the first time in 20 years.
  • In 1995 SA hosted the World Cup Rugby tournament and the South African Springbok team became the world champions.

Activity 3:

To understand time by placing complicated events in the correct order

[lo 2.1]

  • Compile your own learner-friendly time line of the road to democracy and human rights in SA by placing the events in the correct order.


LO 2
HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.
We know this when the learner:
2.1 chronology and time:
  • places events, people and changes on a timeline which includes terms such as ‘BC’, ‘AD’ and ‘BCE’;
2.2 cause and effect:
  • gives reasons for and explains the results of key events and changes in more than one context;
2.3 change and continuity:
  • identifies some aspects of society which have changed and some which have stayed the same over time in more than one context.
LO 3
HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.
We know this when the learner:
3.1 interprets sources:
  • compares two versions of an historical event using visual or written sources;
3.2 reconstructs the past:
  • distinguishes opinions from facts and information;
3.3 representation of the past:
  • identifies and selects items which represent an aspect being studied, to contribute to a class display, school museum or community archive.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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