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Primary and secondary antibody responses

This graph shows the antibody concentration as a function of time in primary and secondary response.
Antigen A is given once to generate a primary response and later to generate a secondary response. When a different antigen is given for the first time, a new primary response is made.

Active versus passive immunity

Immunity to pathogens, and the ability to control pathogen growth so that damage to the tissues of the body is limited, can be acquired by (1) the active development of an immune response in the infected individual or (2) the passive transfer of immune components from an immune individual to a nonimmune one. Both active and passive immunity have examples in the natural world and as part of medicine.

Active immunity is the resistance to pathogens acquired during an adaptive immune response within an individual ( [link] ). Naturally acquired active immunity, the response to a pathogen, is the focus of this chapter. Artificially acquired active immunity involves the use of vaccines. A vaccine is a killed or weakened pathogen or its components that, when administered to a healthy individual, leads to the development of immunological memory (a weakened primary immune response) without causing much in the way of symptoms. Thus, with the use of vaccines, one can avoid the damage from disease that results from the first exposure to the pathogen, yet reap the benefits of protection from immunological memory. The advent of vaccines was one of the major medical advances of the twentieth century and led to the eradication of smallpox and the control of many infectious diseases, including polio, measles, and whooping cough.

Active versus Passive Immunity
Natural Artificial
Active Adaptive immune response Vaccine response
Passive Trans-placental antibodies/breastfeeding Immune globulin injections

Passive immunity arises from the transfer of antibodies to an individual without requiring them to mount their own active immune response. Naturally acquired passive immunity is seen during fetal development. IgG is transferred from the maternal circulation to the fetus via the placenta, protecting the fetus from infection and protecting the newborn for the first few months of its life. As already stated, a newborn benefits from the IgA antibodies it obtains from milk during breastfeeding. The fetus and newborn thus benefit from the immunological memory of the mother to the pathogens to which she has been exposed. In medicine, artificially acquired passive immunity usually involves injections of immunoglobulins, taken from animals previously exposed to a specific pathogen. This treatment is a fast-acting method of temporarily protecting an individual who was possibly exposed to a pathogen. The downside to both types of passive immunity is the lack of the development of immunological memory. Once the antibodies are transferred, they are effective for only a limited time before they degrade.

Immunity can be acquired in an active or passive way, and it can be natural or artificial. Watch this video to see an animated discussion of passive and active immunity. What is an example of natural immunity acquired passively?

T cell-dependent versus t cell-independent antigens

As discussed previously, Th2 cells secrete cytokines that drive the production of antibodies in a B cell, responding to complex antigens such as those made by proteins. On the other hand, some antigens are T cell independent. A T cell-independent antigen    usually is in the form of repeated carbohydrate moieties found on the cell walls of bacteria. Each antibody on the B cell surface has two binding sites, and the repeated nature of T cell-independent antigen leads to crosslinking of the surface antibodies on the B cell. The crosslinking is enough to activate it in the absence of T cell cytokines.

A T cell-dependent antigen    , on the other hand, usually is not repeated to the same degree on the pathogen and thus does not crosslink surface antibody with the same efficiency. To elicit a response to such antigens, the B and T cells must come close together ( [link] ). The B cell must receive two signals to become activated. Its surface immunoglobulin must recognize native antigen. Some of this antigen is internalized, processed, and presented to the Th2 cells on a class II MHC molecule. The T cell then binds using its antigen receptor and is activated to secrete cytokines that diffuse to the B cell, finally activating it completely. Thus, the B cell receives signals from both its surface antibody and the T cell via its cytokines, and acts as a professional antigen-presenting cell in the process.

T and b cell binding

This diagram shows the binding of a B cell and a T cell.
To elicit a response to a T cell-dependent antigen, the B and T cells must come close together. To become fully activated, the B cell must receive two signals from the native antigen and the T cell’s cytokines.

Chapter review

B cells, which develop within the bone marrow, are responsible for making five different classes of antibodies, each with its own functions. B cells have their own mechanisms for tolerance, but in peripheral tolerance, the B cells that leave the bone marrow remain inactive due to T cell tolerance. Some B cells do not need T cell cytokines to make antibody, and they bypass this need by the crosslinking of their surface immunoglobulin by repeated carbohydrate residues found in the cell walls of many bacterial species. Others require T cells to become activated.

Immunity can be acquired in an active or passive way, and it can be natural or artificial. Watch this video to see an animated discussion of passive and active immunity. What is an example of natural immunity acquired passively?

Breastfeeding is an example of natural immunity acquired passively.

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Questions & Answers

how is blood pressure measured
Ryan Reply
blood pressure
a sphygmomanometer is tied in the upper left arm and air is pumped in. The sthesthoscope is placed just below the sphygmomanometer (on brachial artery, above the antecubital fossa). The beginning and ending of pulse is noted which acts as systolic and diastolic pressure.
any other method?
what is protoncogen
how to mesured hear rate&pluse
cancer stimulating factors
structure of the cell
what do u want to know about the structure of the cell?
Process of bone healing
Thelma Reply
The fractured bones are brought closer (reduction of fracture). the fibroblast cells at broken ends divide rapidly and secrete collagen that forms collar of callus. The callus holds the bones together which slowly clacifies (remodelling) and later replaced by bone tissue.
what is the name of the two subunits of L chain of a antibody structure
Arshi Reply
The pituitary gland lies in the
Aamir Reply
bony cavity,sella tursica
how does endochrondral ossification start in short bones?
Steven Reply
the chondroblast cells forms a cartilaginous bone model which becomes calcified in mid region and is innervated by perosteal capillaries. These capillaris replaces cartilages with bone tissue.
define negative feedback
mechanism that cause supression of another process. eg. the secretion of one hormone can supress the other hormone secretion.
simply a self regulating mechanism which retun a deviated parameter to normal condition
secretion of hormones get supressed by other hormone secretion
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what is RH blood group
kuukyile Reply
It is a type of system for classifying blood groups according to the presence or absence of the Rh antigen.
What is the most important organ in the human body?
Gbemi Reply
the heart
or brain
the brain specifically is referred to as the control centre ..all nerve impulses are send to the brain which stimulates other specific parts of the body
please if l am Blood group B+ can l marry a lady with O- blood group?
structure of a serous membrane
Ziyanda Reply
are you asking?
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid. The inner layer that covers organs (viscera) in body cavities is called the visceral membrane. A second layer of epithelial cells of the serous membrane, called th
The two layers of serous membranes are named parietal and visceral. Between the two layers is a thin fluid filled space.[2] The fluid is produced by the serous membranes and stays between the two layers to reduce friction between the walls of the cavities and the internal organs when they move with
a continuation from the 1st one:: A second layer of epithelial cells of the serous membrane, called the parietal layer, lines the body wall. Between the two layers is a potential space, mostly empty except for a few milliliters of lubricating serous fluid that is secreted by the two serous membranes
Lubricated secretion of skin is called sebum
what is the greater tronchanter?
the greater trochanter is  femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a is a part of the system of the skeleton
Thanks Jessie...
what is the easiest way to learn labels of Anatomical structures?
what's the anatomical plan of the horse lung
Name the two phases of metabolism
Grace Reply
reproduction and growth
how about anabolism and catabolism?
In Simply Anabolism means formation... Catabolism means breakdown
two phases of reproductio?
Anabolism indicates potential & catabolism potential converts to kinetic
Name the most important life process in the human body in terms of anatomy and physiology
Nervous system
Every system is important for body functions
what is the difference between the functions of the adhesion belt and the desmosomes?
Mason Reply
what are the derivatives of the germ layer?
Miriam Reply
Pls explain the atlas of the cervical vertebral column
Ifunanya Reply
why does the material not allow in mri
Simran Reply
what do you mean 'mri'
short for magnetic resonance imaging. "the researchers used MRI to record the brain activity" a medical examination performed using magnetic resonance imaging. "he's having an MRI to determine the extent of the injury" an image obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. "after looking at the MRI, the d
what is the meaning of sutures
Ibrahim Reply
i do not know
immovable joints btn two bones.eg the skull bones
Really,it's true
Sutures are immovable junction between two bones e.g those of the skull

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