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While his paper focuses on the heat equation on networks, given Neumann boundary conditions instead of Dirichlet, the eigenvalues of the heat equation are given to be constant μ such that

2 u x 2 = μ u

Since μ has to be less than or equal to zero in order for a solution to the heat equation, the eigenvalues of the heat equation are the squares of the eigenvalues of the wave equation

2 u x 2 = λ 2 u

Therefore, taking the square roots of the eigenvalues μ , we can recover the eigenvalues of the wave equation on our network. For the rest of our stated examples, the eigenvalues mentioned are assumed to be eigenvalues of the wave equation.

Von Below studies the network heat equation with Neumann conditions at the endpoints

u j t = a j 2 u j x j 2

where u j is the temperature of the j th edge, a j is the positive diffusion coefficient of the j th edge, and x j [ 0 , j ] is position on the j th edge, which has length j . The notation is the same as the notation with which the network wave equation was described.

By defining simply a set of nodes and connections between them, Von Below calculates the eigenvalues and eigenmodes of a network with the help of spectral graph theory (a study of the connections between a graph and the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix). The eigenvalues of the heat equation on networks of strings progress according to several different patterns, some of which are common to every network, some of which are network-specific and dependent on the eigenvalues of the network graph's row-normalized adjacency matrix.

For nonspecific parameter values, the best we can hope to do is to solve a transcendental equation for our eigenvalues. For specific parameter values, such as when a j = j 2 , we can solve analytically for both the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the heat equation, breaking both down into cases. There are, in general, 5 total classes into which eigenpairs of the heat equation on a network can be organized, with each network having at most 4 classes applicable to it.

The tritar's eigenvalues sorted by cases
The tritar's eigenvalues sorted by magnitude. These eigenvalues of the tritar are calculated via Von Below's methods. For each eigenvalue case, there exist an infinite number of eigenvalues

For each one of these classes mentioned, there is an infinite number of eigenvalues associated with it. Organizing the progression by k instead of by magnitude gives more insight into the nonlinear progression of our network eigenvalues - there is a clear bifurcating/splitting patten of the eigenvalues as k increases. As the progression of eigenvalues splits into two separate patterns, each pattern is linear with different rates.

The fundamental difference here is that the eigenvalues for the one dimensional transverse network wave equation progress with two different rates. While there are two distinct sets of eigenvalues for our three dimensional string, to have eigenvalues progressing at different rates for one dimensional transverse string motion is atypical. This isn't a complete explanation for the irregular progression of the eigenvalues for the three dimensional wave equation; however, it does offer some clues as to the nonlinear ordering of those eigenvalues.

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Jeremy Morell, whose work I built upon, as well as Robert Likamwa, who helped nail down a lot of details concerning visualization and graphics. Thanks to Dr. Cox and Dr. Embree for their guidance their trust that I could actually do something with the project they gave me.

This work was partially supported by NSF DMS Grant 0240058

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The art of the pfug. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10523/1.34
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