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Figure below shows a simple inheritance hierarchy. A typical company has hundreds of persons. An important subset of these persons is a set of employees. Employees are either workers or secretaries.

Person class hierarchy

Each class in a class hierarchy cumulatively inherits the class members of all classes that precede it in the hierarchy chain.

A class that directly precedes another class in a class hierarchy, and is included in the derived class’s base list, is called the direct base class.

A class that does not directly precede another class in a class hierarchy, and that not included in the derived class’s base list, is called the indirect base class.

Access specifiers and inheritance

Even though a derived class inherits the class members of a base class, the base class’s members are still bound by its access specifiers.

Private class members in the base class can be accessed only the base class’s member functions.

For example, the idNum data member in the Person class is private. If you write the following member function in the Customer class, which attempts to directly access to the idNum data member, you will get a compiler error.

void Customer::outputBalDue(){

cout<<“ ID #”<<idNum<<“ Balance due $”<<balanceDue<<endl;

}

Instead, to access the idNum data member you must call the Person class’s outputData() member function, which is public. Alternatively, you can declare the idNum data member with the protected access specifier.

The protected access modifier restricts class member access to

  1. the class itself
  2. to classes derived from the class, or

The following code shows a modified version of the Person class declaration in which the private access modifier has been changed to protected.

Example:

class Person {

protected:

int idNum;

char lastName[20];

char firstName[15];

public:

void setFields(int num, char last[], char first[]);

void outputData();

};

A member function in Customer class that attempts to directly access to the idNum data member will work correctly since the Customer class is a derived class of the Person class and the idNum data member is now declared as protected.

Overriding base class member functions

Derived classes are not required to use a base class’s member functions. You can write a more suitable version of a member function for a derived class when necessary. Writing a member function in a derived class to replace a base class member function is called function overriding .

To override a base class function, the derived member function declaration must exactly match the base class member function declaration, including the function name, return type and parameters.

To force an object of a derived class to use the base class version of an overridden function, you precede the function name with the base class name and the scope resolution operator using the syntax:

object.base_class::function();

Example

In the following code, the base class Person and the derived class Employee have their own function member with the same name setFields().

#include<iostream.h>

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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