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Preparing leaders within an increasingly diverse society to engage in closing the achievement gap is a daunting challenge. This study examines the perceptions of ten “at-risk” students’ regarding their self-systems and factors that influenced their engagement in or disengagement from learning. Marzano’s (1998) self-system model was employed as a framework.

In addition to published in the Connexions Content Commons, this manuscript is catalogued in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database providing a comprehensive, easy-to-use, searchable Internet-based bibliographic and full text database for education research and information for educators, researchers, and the general public. (California Association of Professors of Educational Administration/U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences Contract No. ED-04-CO-0005)

About the authors

Philip Mirci is an Associate Professor in the School of Education at the University of Redlands.

Corey Loomis is an Adjunct Professor in the School of Education at the University of Redlands.

Phyllis Hensley is an Associate Professor of Educational Leadership at Texas A&M, Corpus Christi.


What should professors of educational leadership understand regarding the generation of student engagement in learning in order to assist aspiring administrators in promoting effective teaching and learning? Engagement in learning is defined as students believing they possess the potential to succeed academically (Cambourne, 1993). It reveals the importance of relationships in the learning process (Hensley&Burmeister, 2009; Mirci&Hensley, 2011). When students are marginalized, excluded, negatively labeled, and do not fit what is considered to be normative, they may experience social injustice because of the ways in which oppression have been institutionalized within the education system. For the purposes of this article social justice is defined as the pursuit of equity and the creation of inclusive school cultures that are absent of overt or covert oppression. Oppression is a sense of powerlessness and exclusion. In schools, students face social injustice when they are oppressed based on racism, sexism, heterosexism, classism, ableism, audism, sizeism, ageism, and religious intolerance (Mirci&Hensley, 2011).

As a group they are stereotyped at the same time that their experience and situation are invisible in the society in general, and they have little opportunity and little audience for the expression of their experience and perspective of social events … group members suffer random violence and harassment motivated by group hatred or fear. (Young, 1997, p. 262)

A sometimes subtle and not so subtle form of social injustice is evidenced by teachers who have low expectations of students’ intellectual, social, emotional, and ethical success in schooling. Low expectations are conveyed both verbally and nonverbally by acts of exclusion and are reflected in attitudes, beliefs, and practices by some (not all) educators and other stakeholders in education. These, in turn, influence how students targeted for such treatment are influenced to internalize this oppression and low expectations of oneself.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11358/1.4
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