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a bottlenose dolphin
Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops sp.)

About bottlenose dolphins

Bottlenose dolphins ( [link] ) are marine mammals named for their characteristic bottle-shaped, elongated snout (Gunter 1943). There are actually two species: the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) and the Indo-pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus). Growing to an average adult length of 2.5 m and weight of 200-300 kilograms, bottlenose dolphins are adept, quick swimmers (Gunter 1943). They navigate by using echolocation to perceive their surroundings and use varying vocalizations to communicate with each other (Connor&Smolker 1996). Using their strong tail and aquiline shape, bottlenose dolphins are famous for their aerial and swimming displays.

Structure of male dolphin alliances

A first-order (primary) alliance consists of two or three males that band together to consort a single female. A second-order (secondary) alliance consists of two or three primary alliances that work together to steal females from other alliances (Connor 1992).

First-order alliances are usually related

First-order alliances vary in stability, remaining together anywhere from several days to 20 years. Stable primary pairs and trios spend the majority of their time together, regardless of whether they are actually herding females (Gero et al. 2005). This long-term association is thought to maximize their reproductive success because males in alliances are more successful in consorting unwilling females, confronting female alliances, and defending themselves against harassment by other male alliances. In a study by Krutzen et al., it was found that primary alliances are more closely related than expected by chance, which presents inclusive fitness benefits as a possible driving force for the formation of primary alliances (2003).

Second-order alliances are not necessarily related

Second-order alliances experience frequent reshuffling of their primary alliance components (Connor et al. 1999). A study by Krutzen et al. revealed that secondary alliances are also closely related (2003). Second-order alliances are most likely to band together at the peak of mating season, when competition for females is most fierce. [link] shows bottlenose dolphins in close proximity.

Super-alliances are very large, labile secondary alliances

An unusually large secondary alliance, called a “superalliance”, with 14 individuals (4-6 primary alliances) was observed in Shark Bay, Australia (Connor et al. 1999). The primary alliances in the super-alliance were quite labile (Connor 2007). Alliances were analyzed by calculating an association coefficient based on the cooperation observed in consorting a female (Connor et al. 1996). Males were considered to be members of the same party if there were within 10 meters of each other. The analysis gave a number between 0 and 100 (0 meaning a pair is never together and 100 meaning a pair that is always together). No stable alliances (association coefficient>25) were observed in the super-alliance. Connor et al. theorized that switching partners may serve to keep the stability of the super-alliance because dolphins are able to make a large number of affiliative bonds (1999) However, the lability of super-alliances could also be dictated by the equivalence rule , where animals group things into classes of equivalent value and all member of a certain class are interchangeable (Connor et al. 1999). In a super-alliance, first-order alliances may be fluid because individuals view each other as interchangeable members of the same equivalence class. However, Connor et al. found that bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay show marked preferences and avoided certain members, suggesting that these dolphins do not follow the equivalence rule.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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