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General discussion

The space domain

In Part 1 of this series, I extended the concept of the Fourier transform from the time domain into the space domain. I pointed out that while the time domainis one-dimensional, the space domain is thee-dimensional. However, in order to keep the complexity of this module in check, we will assume that space is onlytwo-dimensional. This will serve us well later for such tasks as image processing.

(Three-dimensional Fourier transforms are beyond the scope of this module. I will write a module on using Fourier transforms inthree-dimensional space later if I have the time.)

A purely real space domain

Although the space domain can be (and often is) complex, many interesting problems, (such as photographic image processing) can be dealt with under the assumption that the space domain is purely real. We willmake that assumption in this module. This assumption will allow us to simplify our computations when performing the 2D Fourier transform to transform our datafrom the space domain into the wavenumber domain.


I will present and explain two complete Java programs in this module. The first program is a single class named ImgMod30 , which provides the capability to perform forward and inverse Fourier transforms onthree-dimensional surfaces. In addition, the class provides a method that can be used to reformat the wavenumber spectrum to make it more suitable for display.

The second program is named ImgMod31 . This is an executable program whose purpose is to exercise and to test the ImgMod30 class using several examples for which the results should already be known.

Sample programs

The class named ImgMod30

This class provides 2D Fourier transform capability that can be used for image processing and other purposes. The class provides three static methods:

  • xform2D : Performs a forward 2D Fourier transform on a purely real surface described by a 2D array of double values in the space domain to produce a complex spectrum in the wavenumberdomain. The method returns the real part, the imaginary part, and the amplitude spectrum, each in its own 2D array of double values.
  • inverseXform2D : Performs an inverse 2D Fourier transform from the complex wavenumber domain into the real space domainusing the real and imaginary parts of the wavenumber spectrum as input. Returns the surface in the space domain as a 2D array of double values. Assumes that the real and imaginary parts in the wavenumber domainare consistent with a purely real surface in the space domain, and does not return an imaginary surface for the space domain
  • shiftOrigin : The wavenumber spectrum produced by xform2D has its origin in the top-left corner with the Nyquist folding wave numbers near the center. This is not a very suitableformat for visual analysis. This method rearranges the data to place the origin at the center with the Nyquist folding wave numbers along the edges.

The class was tested using JDK 1.8 and Windows 7. The class uses the static import capability that was introduced in J2SE 5.0. Therefore, it should notcompile using earlier versions of the compiler.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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