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Multiply-add speed is important

Some DSP processes require extremely large numbers of multiply-add operations. In order to perform DSP in real time, the equipment used to performthe arithmetic must be extremely fast. That is where the special DSP chips, (which are designed to perform multiply-add operations at an extremely high rate of speed) earn their keep.

The net area under the curve

If you plot a time series as a curve on a graph, as shown in Figure 3 , the sum of the values that make up the time series is an estimate of the net areaunder the curve.

(Assuming that the horizontal axis represents a value of zero, the sample values above the axis contribute a positive value to the net area and thesample values below the curve contribute a negative value to the net area. In the case of Figure 3 , I attempted to come up with a set of sample values that would produce a net area of zero. In other words, the area above thehorizontal axis was intended to perfectly balance the area below the horizontal axis.)
Figure 3. Plot of values in a time series.
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A periodic example

A periodic time series is one in which a set of sample values repeats over time, provided that you record enough samples to include one or more periods. Figure 4 shows a plot of a periodic time series. You can see that the same set of values repeats as you move from left to right on the curve plotted in Figure 4 .

Figure 4. Area under a periodic curve.
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The sum of two curves

Periodic curves can often be viewed as the sum of two curves. One of the curves is the periodic component having a zero net area under the curve whenmeasured across an even number of cycles. The other component is a constant bias offset that is added to every value of the periodic curve.

Each of the solid dark blobs in Figure 4 is a sample value. The horizontal line represents a sample value of zero. (The empty circle is the sample value half way through the sampling interval. The only reason it is different isto mark the mid point.)

The net area under the curve

What is the net area under the curve in Figure 4 ? Can you examine the curve and come up with a good estimate. As it turns out, the net area under the curvein Figure 4 is very close to zero (at least it is as close to zero as I was able to draw it) .

Now take a look at Figure 5 . What is the net area under the curve in Figure 5 ?

Figure 5. Area under a periodic curve with an offset.
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Compare Figure 5 To Figure 4

Each of these curves describes the same periodic shape (although Figure 4 has a larger peak-to-peak amplitude, meaning simply that every value in Figure 4 has been multiplied by the same scale factor) .

However, the curve in Figure 5 is riding up on a positive bias, while the curve in Figure 4 is centered about the horizontal axis. While the net area under the curve in Figure 4 is near zero, the net area under the curve in Figure 5 is a non-zero positive value.

The curve in Figure 5 can be considered to consist of the sum of two parts. One part is a straight horizontal line on the positive side of the horizontalaxis. The other part is the periodic curve from Figure 4 , added to that positive bias.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Digital signal processing - dsp. OpenStax CNX. Jan 06, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11642/1.38
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