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The spectral analysis output

The output produced by performing spectral analysis on these five sinusoids is shown in Figure 9 . The computation and display of this spectral analysis was performed using the programs named Dsp028 and Graph03 . (Note that the parameters in the text boxes at the bottom were used to alter the appearance of the plots.)

Figure 9. Spectral analysis of five sinusoids.
missing image

The format explained

Five separate spectral analyses were performed and the results of those five spectral analyses are shown in Figure 9 . Each of the horizontal lines in Figure 9 is the horizontal axis used to display the result of performing a spectral analysis on a different sinusoid. In other words, Figure 9 contains five separate graphs moving from the top to the bottom of the display. The individualgraphs have alternating white and gray backgrounds to make them easier to separate visually.

The top graph in Figure 9 shows the result of performing a spectral analysis on the top sinusoid in Figure 3 . Moving down the page, each graph in Figure 9 shows the result of performing a spectral analysis on the corresponding sinusoidin Figure 3 .

The frequency axes

The horizontal axes in Figure 9 represent the frequency range from zero to the sampling frequency.

(The frequency range covered is specified by the Lower frequency bound and the Upper frequency bound parameters in Figure 8 .)

The horizontal units

The horizontal units in Figure 9 don't represent frequency in an absolute sense of cycles per second or Hertz. Rather, the horizontal units in Figure 9 represent the frequency bins for which spectral energy was computed. In thiscase, the spectral energy for each sinusoid was computed in 400 equally spaced bins distributed between zero and the sampling frequency.

(The number of frequency bins for each individual spectrum computed by this program is equal to the Data length parameter in Figure 8 . Those frequency bins are distributed uniformly between the Lower frequency bound and the Upper frequency bound parameters in Figure 8 .)

Location of the folding frequency

Because the right-most end of each horizontal axis in Figure 9 represents the sampling frequency, the center of each horizontal axis represents one-half thesampling frequency, or the Nyquist folding frequency. Thus, the frequency represented by the center of each horizontal axis represents the frequencyspecified by a value of 0.5 in Figure 8 .

A peak at the folding frequency

You can see a large peak in energy at the folding frequency of the bottom graph in Figure 9 . That peak corresponds to the frequency of the fifth sinusoid specified in the parameters shown in Figure 8 . (This also corresponds to the spectrum of the bottom graph in Figure 3 .)

Knowing that, you should be able to correlate each of the peaks to the left of center in Figure 9 with the frequencies of the sinusoids specified in Figure 8 and with the individual sinusoids plotted in Figure 3 .

The frequency folding effect

Figure 9 clearly shows the frequency folding effect of the sampling process illustrated earlier. As you can see, the peaks in the various graphs to theright of the folding frequency are mirror images of the peaks to the left of the folding frequency. In other words, given a set of samples of a sinusoid, thespectral analysis process is unable to determine whether the peak is above or below the folding frequency, so the energy is equally distributed between twopeaks on opposite sides of the folding frequency.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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