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This trend toward unification of defense R&D continued throughout the Eisenhower administration. In 1953, the Defense Department established the offices of Research and Development and of Applications Engineering, both headed by civilians at the Assistant Secretary level, and abolished the part-time civilian Joint Research and Development Board. For its part, SAC/ODM demonstrated its potential to contribute significantly to defense analysis, if not to policy formulation more broadly, through the work of its Technology Capabilities Panel, established in 1954 under the chairmanship of MIT president James Killian. Two years later, the Defense Department established a separate, independent Institute for Defense Analysis (IDA), to provide continuing advice on advanced R&D to the department’s policy-level officials.

By the spring of 1951, Science—the Endless Frontier ’s proposed unitary solution to the problem of linking scientific research with government was a dead letter. The infant NSF had been excluded from mainstream national defense research and preempted by default from medical- and nuclear-oriented research by the National Institutes of Health and the Atomic Energy Commission. As a result, Waterman decided that the most feasible survival strategy for the foundation would be to become the principal federal patron for university basic research and graduate education in the natural science disciplines. NSF was explicitly mandated (some would say ordered) to support the social sciences as a result of hearings held in 1960 before a committee of the House of Representatives which led to amendments to the NSF Act of 1950. Thus began the retreat of the National Science Foundation and the National Science Board from the policy responsibilities and prerogatives envisioned by Science—the Endless Frontier , authorized by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 and reiterated by Eisenhower in his 1954 executive order.

Science and international relations

A clear example of the use of science for international diplomacy was the Atoms for Peace program, announced by President Eisenhower in a speech before the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 8, 1953. (External Link) “December_8”. The president stated, “I feel impelled to speak today in a language that in a sense is new—one which I, who have spent so much of my life in the military profession, would have preferred never to use. That new language is the language of atomic warfare.” He went on to state that advances in the field of nuclear energy could yield significant benefits and that the United States proposed to make use of them as a means to foster world peace. The program supplied equipment and information to schools, hospitals, and research institutions within the United States and throughout the world.

American participation in the International Geophysical Year was charged to a U.S. National Committee (USNC) appointed in March 1953. The core USNC was made up of sixteen members; its five working groups and thirteen technical panels eventually drew in nearly two hundred additional scientists. The technical panels pursued work in aurora and airglow, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, glaciology, gravity, ionospheric physics, longitude and latitude determination, meteorology, oceanography, rocketry, seismology, and solar activity. In addition, a technical panel was set up to attempt to launch an artificial satellite into orbit around the earth.

A fading vision

The late Truman and early Eisenhower years were characterized by a divergence of responsibilities for science policy formulation and implementation on the one hand, and the support and facilitation of scientific research on the other. Science policy was taken seriously by the White House and Congress primarily because of its national defense implications, with a concomitant though often only dimly understood acceptance of the need to provide modest levels of support to the university basic research system, in the event that its services would again be required in a time of national crisis. The launching of Sputnik I by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, widely perceived as just such a crisis, ushered in a period now regarded as the golden age of U.S. science policy.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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