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In addition to being one of the easiest ways to populate the array, this is also a way to produce a sound that is very close to being a pure tone . By pure tone, I mean a sound that results from something vibrating at a single frequencysuch as Middle-C ((261.63 Hz) .

The shape of a sinusoid

If you have taken a math course in trigonometry, you probably know the shape produced by graphing the output from either the sin function or the cos function. If not, it would be good if you can ask a sighted friend to Google for "sinusoidal function image", download and print oneor more of the images and emboss them for you using whatever embossing method you prefer. This will provide you with a tactile representation of a sinusoid.

An audio graph of a sinusoid

In any event, I am going to provide you with a sound file named SinusoidalAudioGraph that provides an audio representation of the graph of a sinusoid.

This audio file contains an 8-second melody consisting of 32 uniformly spaced pulses at different frequencies. The frequencies (pitches) of the pulses are centered on middle-C (261.63 Hz) . The frequency deviation from middle-C versus time is based on a sinusoidal function with a frequency of 0.5 Hz.

Points on graph

Each pulse represents one point on a graph of thesinusoid. Pulses with frequencies at or above middle-C are delivered to the left speaker. Pulses with frequencies belowmiddle-C are delivered to the right speaker.

The audio output can be thought of as an audio representation of a graph of a sinusoid. Pulses with frequencies abovemiddle-C represent points on the positive lobe of the sinusoid. Increasing pitch represents increasing amplitude on the graph of the sinusoid.

Pulses with frequencies below middle-C can be thought of as representing points on thenegative lobe of the sinusoid. In this case, decreasing pitch represents points on the sinusoid that are further from the horizontal axis in the negativedirection.

Pulses with a frequency of middle-C can be thought of as representing points on the horizontal axis with a value of zero.

Four complete cycles of the 0.5 Hz sinusoid are represented by the 32 pulses in the 8-second melody.

Hopefully, by listening to this audio file, you can get an idea of the shape of a sinusoid.

A dual purpose

In addition to providing the audio file to help you discern the shape of a sinusoid, I am also providing it as an example of the type of audio files thatyou will be able to create once you understand the programs in upcoming modules.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Jbs2000-What is Sound?
  • File: Jbs2000.htm
  • Published: 08/25/14
  • Revised: 09/29/15

Financial : Although the OpenStax CNX site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for the collection thatcontains this module at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, youshould be aware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

You also need to know that Prof. Baldwin receives no financial compensation from OpenStax CNX even if you purchase the PDF version of the collection.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied Prof. Baldwin's modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placedthem for sale on Amazon.com showing Prof. Baldwin as the author. Prof. Baldwin neither receives compensation for those sales nordoes he know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please be aware that it is a copy of a collection thatis freely available on OpenStax CNX and that it was made and published without the prior knowledge of Prof.Baldwin.

Affiliation : Prof. Baldwin is a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College inAustin, TX.


Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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