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In addition to being one of the easiest ways to populate the array, this is also a way to produce a sound that is very close to being a pure tone . By pure tone, I mean a sound that results from something vibrating at a single frequencysuch as Middle-C ((261.63 Hz) .

The shape of a sinusoid

If you have taken a math course in trigonometry, you probably know the shape produced by graphing the output from either the sin function or the cos function. If not, it would be good if you can ask a sighted friend to Google for "sinusoidal function image", download and print oneor more of the images and emboss them for you using whatever embossing method you prefer. This will provide you with a tactile representation of a sinusoid.

An audio graph of a sinusoid

In any event, I am going to provide you with a sound file named SinusoidalAudioGraph that provides an audio representation of the graph of a sinusoid.

This audio file contains an 8-second melody consisting of 32 uniformly spaced pulses at different frequencies. The frequencies (pitches) of the pulses are centered on middle-C (261.63 Hz) . The frequency deviation from middle-C versus time is based on a sinusoidal function with a frequency of 0.5 Hz.

Points on graph

Each pulse represents one point on a graph of thesinusoid. Pulses with frequencies at or above middle-C are delivered to the left speaker. Pulses with frequencies belowmiddle-C are delivered to the right speaker.

The audio output can be thought of as an audio representation of a graph of a sinusoid. Pulses with frequencies abovemiddle-C represent points on the positive lobe of the sinusoid. Increasing pitch represents increasing amplitude on the graph of the sinusoid.

Pulses with frequencies below middle-C can be thought of as representing points on thenegative lobe of the sinusoid. In this case, decreasing pitch represents points on the sinusoid that are further from the horizontal axis in the negativedirection.

Pulses with a frequency of middle-C can be thought of as representing points on the horizontal axis with a value of zero.

Four complete cycles of the 0.5 Hz sinusoid are represented by the 32 pulses in the 8-second melody.

Hopefully, by listening to this audio file, you can get an idea of the shape of a sinusoid.

A dual purpose

In addition to providing the audio file to help you discern the shape of a sinusoid, I am also providing it as an example of the type of audio files thatyou will be able to create once you understand the programs in upcoming modules.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Jbs2000-What is Sound?
  • File: Jbs2000.htm
  • Published: 08/25/14
  • Revised: 09/29/15

Financial : Although the OpenStax CNX site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for the collection thatcontains this module at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, youshould be aware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

You also need to know that Prof. Baldwin receives no financial compensation from OpenStax CNX even if you purchase the PDF version of the collection.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied Prof. Baldwin's modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placedthem for sale on Amazon.com showing Prof. Baldwin as the author. Prof. Baldwin neither receives compensation for those sales nordoes he know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please be aware that it is a copy of a collection thatis freely available on OpenStax CNX and that it was made and published without the prior knowledge of Prof.Baldwin.

Affiliation : Prof. Baldwin is a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College inAustin, TX.


Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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