The signal
$s(t)$ is bandlimited to 4 kHz. We want to sample it,
but it has been subjected to various signal processingmanipulations.
What sampling frequency (if any works) can be used
to sample the result of passing
$s(t)$ through an RC highpass filter with
$R=10\mathrm{k\Omega}$ and
$C=8\mathrm{nF}$ ?
What sampling frequency (if any works) can be used to
sample the
derivative of
$s(t)$ ?
The signal
$s(t)$ has been modulated by an 8 kHz
sinusoid having an unknown phase: the resultingsignal is
$s(t)\sin (2\pi {f}_{0}t+\phi )$ , with
${f}_{0}=8\mathrm{kHz}$ and
$\phi =?$ Can the modulated signal be sampled so that the
original signal can be recovered from
the modulated signal regardless of the phase value
$\phi $ ? If so, show how and
find the smallest sampling rate that can be used; if not,show why not.
Non-standard sampling
Using the properties of the Fourier series can ease
finding a signal's spectrum.
Suppose a signal
$s(t)$ is periodic with period
$T$ . If
${c}_{k}()$ represents the signal's Fourier series
coefficients, what are the Fourier seriescoefficients of
$s(t-\frac{T}{2})$ ?
Find the Fourier series of the signal
$p(t)$ shown in
[link] .
Suppose this signal is used to sample a signal
bandlimited to
$\frac{1}{T}\mathrm{Hz}$ . Find an expression for and sketch the spectrum
of the sampled signal.
Does aliasing occur? If so, can a change in sampling
rate prevent aliasing;if not, show how the signal can be
recovered from these samples.
A different sampling scheme
A signal processing engineer from Texas
A&M claims to have developed an improved sampling
scheme. He multiplies the bandlimited signal by the
depicted periodic pulse signal to perform sampling (
[link] ).
Find the Fourier spectrum of this signal.
Will this scheme work? If so, how should
${T}_{S}$ be related to the signal's bandwidth?
If not, why not?
Bandpass sampling
The signal
$s(t)$ has the indicated spectrum.
What is the minimum sampling rate for this signal
suggested by the Sampling Theorem?
Because of the particular structure of this
spectrum, one wonders whether a lower sampling ratecould be used. Show that this is indeed the case, and
find the system that reconstructs
$s(t)$ from its samples.
Sampling signals
If a signal is bandlimited to
$W$ Hz, we can sample it at
any rate
$\frac{1}{{T}_{s}}> 2W$ and recover the waveform exactly. This statement of the
Sampling Theorem can be taken to mean that allinformation about the original signal can be extracted
from the samples. While true in principle, you do haveto be careful how you do so. In addition to the rms
value of a signal, an important aspect of a signal isits peak value, which equals
$\max\{\left|s(t)\right|\}$ .
Let
$s(t)$ be a sinusoid having frequency
$W$ Hz. If we sample it
at precisely the Nyquist rate, how accurately do thesamples convey the sinusoid's amplitude? In other
words, find the worst case example.
How fast would you need to sample for the
amplitude estimate to be within 5% of the truevalue?
Another issue in sampling is the inherent amplitude
quantization produced by A/D converters. Assume themaximum voltage allowed by the converter is
${V}_{\mathrm{max}}()$ volts and that it quantizes amplitudes to
$b$ bits.
We can express the quantized sample
$Q(s(n{T}_{s}))$ as
$s(n{T}_{s})+\epsilon (t)$ , where
$\epsilon (t)$ represents the quantization error at the
${n}^{\mathrm{th}}()$ sample. Assuming the converter rounds, how large is
maximum quantization error?
We can
describe the quantization error as noise, with apower proportional to the square of the maximum
error. What is the signal-to-noise ratio of thequantization error for a full-range sinusoid?
Express your result in decibels.
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.