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A.d. 1801 to 1900

Backward to A.D. 1701 to 1800

Up until the beginning of this century the basis of man's existence for about 4,000 years had been agriculture and actually this had changed very little during that great time interval. Even in A.D. 1800 between 80 and 95% of the population, even in Europe, were engaged in farming and the plow and the sickle had advanced relatively little. The same could be said of land travel, in that armies, for example, at the beginning of this century made no better transportation time than did Caesar's, seldom covering more than 30 miles in 24 hours. By sea, however, in good weather, one could make 120 miles in a day. Not until the invention of the internal combustion engine in the 1,880s did land travel have a major part in the spread of either ideas or commerce. (Ref. 213 )

The 19th century started the process of the replacement of the old agricultural society with an urban, industrialized, technocratic community. At first this resulted in a decline of world economy that lasted until mid-century. (Ref. 292 ) The old cultures of wood and charcoal were now civilizations of coal, although it has been estimated that Europe alone still burned 100 million tons of wood in 1840. (Ref. 260 ) In all modern countries in the first 2/3 of the century the manufacture of cloth and clothes from cotton was a more important industry than coal or iron or railroads. (Ref. 213 , 260 )

After about 1,840 military dominance of the European continent over the rest of the world became very apparent. Short-term conscription followed by reserve service, along with new methods of transport and supply, could be matched in neither Africa nor Asia. Only very late in the century and only then in Japan, did a conscript army become feasible. Long-time service troops were obtained by England by the use of native soldiers. Most of Britain's military engagements in the century were fought by troops of the Indian Army. France had its famed Foreign Legion. Russia could use her own expeditionary forces in Central Asia to conquer Moslem tribes and states with ease. Only the Americas seemed off-limits to European aggression, chiefly because of the power shown by the United States in the time of and after the Civil War. (Ref. 279 )

The world population increased more rapidly than in any previous period from about 900 million to 1,600 million, but this increase could be accommodated without too much stress because of the availability of scarcely populated land in Africa and the Americas and the global integration of market-regulated human efforts. (Ref. 8 , 279 )

Two advances in medicine - anesthesia and the discovery of the bacterial causes of lyme diseases - radically transformed all medical thought and treatment by the end of the century. Typhoid fever was identified as a distinct disease in 1829 and a vaccine was developed by 1896. The diphtheria bacillus was identified in 1883 and an antitoxin was available by 1891. As a result of these and other advances there began to be a dramatic reduction in the mortality from cholera, tuberculosis, small-pox, typhus and, of course, typhoid fever. Even so, the leading disease of Romantic Europe in this century was a particularly virulent form of tuberculosis, which had probably come from India. (Ref. 140 , 125 , 8 , 260 )

The catholic church and the papacy

As the century opened, the new pope, Pius Vll, was allowed to return to Rome from France, but he continued to have troubles with Napoleon and in 1809 the Papal States were incorporated into France. The pope promptly excommunicated Napoleon, but was then almost immediately arrested and was taken to Genoa, then Fontainebleu as a prisoner. He did return to Rome in 1815 to establish almost a feudal rule, with reinstatement of the Jesuit Order and the Inquisition. For the rest of the century a procession of popes combated the monarchies and nationalism, attempting to retain a place in the world community. (Ref. 119 )

International jewry

Jews of central Europe enjoyed a period of freedom and respect, with real emancipation coming first in France. In England the 26,000 Jews resident in 1800 lived under considerable restrictions with no franchises until 1858, when the civil disabilities were removed. The banker Nathan Rothschild became an important intermediary of the British government with foreign powers and in financial matters, while he played a very important role in the industrial expansion of England, after 1815. Even in Russia, Czar Alexander appointed a committee in late 1802 to study the problems of the Jews and summit recommendations. A "Jewish Constitution" was issued in 1804, which listed both certain rights and restrictions. The Jews might have schools of their own, but only Russian, Polish or German languages could be used.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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