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A.d. 1601 to 1700

Backward to A.D. 1501 to 1600

This century is usually called the age of the scientific revolution, but one must not immediately visualize too rosy a picture of the world. Hunger and poverty were still rampant even in“prosperous”Europe and the division between rich and poor had begun to harden, with the bitterness which led ultimately to the revolutions of the next century. The poor were sometimes chained together as criminals and made to do the vilest of tasks. In some areas vagrants had their heads shaved and were whipped. World population in 1650 was approximately 500,000,000, but at the end of the century½to 1/3 of the population of Finland died of famine. And things were even worse in Asia, China, and India, as we shall document in later paragraphs. Although the rich lived an average of 10 years longer than the poor, this was not to say much. In Beauvaises 25 to 33% of newborn children die in their first year and only 50% reached their 20th year. The high infant mortality, famine, chronic malnutrition, and terrible epidemics kept the number of deaths roughly equivalent to the number of births. (Ref. 260 )

In the 16th and this 17th century, tobacco conquered the entire world, surpassing even tea and coffee in popularity. Government prohibitions encircled the globe but were universally ignored, so that soon some governments themselves cashed in on the market. France established the“Tobacco Monopoly”in 1674. (Ref. 260 )

The christian church

The various conflicts between the Catholic and Protestant divisions of the Christian Church continued well into this century and were augmented at the end of the period by a war which included Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox, all at times changing sides, one with another. Most of the popes of the latter half of the century and the next were worthy men, but the currents of the times were against them. By attempting to remain neutral in the Bourbon-Habsburg conflicts, the popes sacrificed the support of both. Jansenism versus Jesuitism also sapped the papacy. Cornelius Jansenius, Bishop of Ypres, emphasized“inner regeneration”rather than“external reorganization”as represented by the Jesuits.

In the Orthodox Church, the Patriarch Nikon of Russia launched a program of reform in 1653, trying to produce conformity in the Orthodox liturgy with ancient Greek models and he used the techniques of textural criticism of the Jesuits. Persecution of the“old believers”began and they went underground, considering the reformers as“anti-Christ”. Thus, the Russian Church withstood the attack of the West only at the cost of a serious schism in its ranks. (Ref. 139 )

The moslem church

All of the three Moslem empires described in the last chapter showed signs of degeneration in this century. The Ottomans had a crisis both economically and from loss of manpower; the Sfavid Dynasty in Persia, like the Ottomans, entered a period of decline after the death of Abbas I in 1629; and the Mugals in India, after an initial surge of power soon came up against a new, strong Hindu force which promptly had the entire country in revolt. Even so, in the second half of the century, the Moslems continued to win important victories and to penetrate new territories in southeast Europe, India, Africa, and southeast Asia. (Ref. 139 )

International jewry

In this century England, France, and the Netherlands all readmitted Jews, although they were not always socially acceptable. In the southern Baltic area Jews continued to be persecuted and massacred, as we shall detail under that section. (See also page 856)

Forward to A.D. 1701 to 1800

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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