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Why would music drive plasticity in these networks? One idea is that music is often more exacting than other domains in terms of the degree of precision that it demands. For example, music and speech both involve the control of pitch, but music demands a higher degree of precision for both the control and perception of pitch than does ordinary speech (Patel, 2008, Ch. 4). Thus, musical experience may sharpen cortical and subcortical pitch processing mechanisms shared by music and language, leading to the observed superior processing of linguistic pitch contours by musicians (Wong et al., 2007; Patel and Iversen, 2007). Similar arguments may help explain why musically trained individuals show superior perception of speech in noise (Parbery-Clark et al., 2009) and other nonmusical auditory processing benefits.

Apart from the demands of high-precision processing, another factors that may promote music’s ability to drive plasticity is the fact that musical behaviors are often frequently repeated (e.g., frequently singing or playing a particular piece) and often involve heightened emotion. Repeatedly engaging in high-precision processing in the context of heightened emotion seems likely to promote functional and structural changes to the brain.

6. a non-genetic explanation for music’s universality

Thus far, this essay has argued that music is an invention. Yet if it is an invention, why is it universal in human culture? Section 3 pointed out that human cultural universals can originate as inventions, as illustrated by the control of fire. TTM theory posits that music resembles fire-making in being an ancient invention that has become universal because it provides things that are universally valued by humans. In the case of fire, these things include the ability to cook food, keep warm, and see in dark places. In the case of music, I suggest that the valued things it provides are mental rather than physical: namely, emotional power, ritual efficacy, and mnemonic efficacy.

6.1 emotional power

Many people report listening to music for the emotion it induces (Juslin and Sloboda, 2001; Benzon, 2001). Emotions are important for humans everywhere from the very beginning of life, and hence one reason for music’s universality may be its deep connection to the brain’s emotional circuitry (Peretz, 2010, Koelsch, 2010). This connection could help explain the human proclivity for music without postulating any “innate proclivity for musical sounds and actions” (Kirschner and Tomasello, in press).

However, this is a rather unsatisfying explanation for music’s universality, because it only serves to raise more questions. Why does music have these connections to the emotion circuits of our brains? Can the remarkable power of music to induce emotion be explained without appealing to an evolutionary specialization of the brain for music? In this regard, a recent theory of emotional induction by music is of interest (Juslin and Västfjäll, 2008). According to this “multiple mechanisms” theory, music can induce emotion in several different ways, namely via 1) expectancy and its fulfillment or violation; 2) activation of the brainstem by arousing acoustic features (e.g., sudden, sharp onsets); 3) association with past events; 4) visual imagery; or 5) acoustic cues that resemble the sounds of emotional voices. For the current purposes, the salient aspect of Juslin and Västfjäll’s theory is that none of the proposed emotion-inducing mechanisms is unique to music. For example, focusing on the first mechanism, auditory expectation and its relationship to emotion may be a very general aspect of human cognition, not shaped for music but exquisitely exploited by music (see Huron, 2006, for a detailed theory, and Steinbeis et al., 2006, for empirical data linking musical expectancy to emotion). Focusing on the final mechanism, the authors postulate that this aspect of music’s emotional power is due to brain mechanisms that evolved to perceive and respond to vocal affect (cf. Patel 2008b).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Emerging disciplines: shaping new fields of scholarly inquiry in and beyond the humanities. OpenStax CNX. May 13, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11201/1.1
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