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3. the visitor pattern

The visitor pattern is a pattern for communication and collaboration between two union patterns: a "host" union and a "visitor" union.  An abstract visitor is usually defined as an interface in Java.  It has a separate method for each of the concrete variant of the host union.  The abstract host has a method (called the "hook") to "accept" a visitor and leaves it up to each of its concrete variants to call the appropriate visitor method.  This "decoupling" of the host's structural behaviors from the extrinsic algorithms on the host permits the addition of infinitely many external algorithms without changing any of the host union code.  This extensibility only works if the taxonomy of the host union is stable and does not change.  If we have to modify the host union, then we will have to modify ALL visitors as well!


NOTE: All the "state-less" visitors, that is visitors that contain no non-static fields should be singletons.  Visitors that contain non-static fields should not be singletons.

4.  fundamental object-oriented design methodology (foodm)

  1. Identify and separate the variant and the invariant behaviors.
  2. Encapsulate the invariant behaviors into a system of classes.
  3. Add "hooks" to this class to define communication protocols with other classes.
  4. Encapsulate the variant behaviors into a union of classes that comply with the above protocols.

The result is a flexible system of co-operating objects that is not only reusable and extensible, but also easy to understand and maintain.

Let us illustrate the above process by applying it to the design of the immutable list structure and its algorithms.

  1. Here, the invariant is the intrinsic and primitive behavior of the list structure, IList , and the variants are the multitude of extrinsic and non-primitive algorithms that manipulate it, IListAlgo .
  2. The recursive list structure is implemented using the composite design pattern and encapsulated with a minimal and complete set of primitive structural operations:  getFirst() and getRest()
  3. The hook method Object execute(IListAlgo ago,  Object inp) defines the protocols for operating on the list structure. The hook works as if a IList announces to the outside world the following protocol: If you want me to execute your algorithm, encapsulate it into an object of type IListAlgo, hand it to me together with its inp object as parameters for my execute(). I will send your algorithm object the appropriate message for it to perform its task, and return you the result.
    • emptyCase(...) should be the part of the algorithm that deals with the case where I am empty.
    • nonEmptyCase(...) should be the part of the algorithm that deals with the case where I am not empty.”
  4. IListAlgo and all of its concrete implementations forms a union of algorithms classes that can be sent to the list structure for execution.

Below is the UML class diagram of the resulting list design.  Click here to see the full documentation.   Click here to see the code .

The above design is nothing but a special case of the Visitor Pattern .  The interface IList is called the host and its method execute() is called a " hook " to the IListAlgo visitors .  Via polymorphism, IList knows exactly what method to call on the specific IListAlgo visitor.  This design turns the list structure into a (miniature) framework where control is inverted: one hands an algorithm to the structure to be executed instead of handing a structure to an algorithm to perform a computation. Since an IListAlgo only interacts with the list on which it operates via the list’s public interface, the list structure is capable of carrying out any conforming algorithm, past, present, or future. This is how reusability and extensibility is achieved.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of object-oriented programming. OpenStax CNX. May 10, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10213/1.37
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