<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The examples of fire-making and reading show that the evolutionary null hypothesis for music is not challenged by music’s universality, age, association with some degree of brain specialization, or its influence by specific genes. Challenges to the null hypothesis thus must come from other sources. Patel (2008: 367-400) reviewed a wide range of evidence in this regard, including data from neuroscience, infant studies, and animal studies, and argued that at present the null hypothesis for music could not be rejected.

Rather than rehearse those arguments here, sections 3.1 and 3.2 below take a different approach and illustrate two lines of research that support the idea of music as an invention. These studies illustrate a comparative approach to the evolutionary biology of music (McDermott and Hauser, 2003; Justus and Hutsler, 2005). The basic logic of this approach is as follows: If one can show that an aspect of music cognition is rooted in other, nonmusical human brain functions or is shared with other species, then it is parsimonious to assume that this aspect has not been shaped by natural selection for music. This approach is particularly powerful when applied to aspects of music which seem domain-specific, i.e., not related to other types of cognition, such as tonality processing and synchronization of movement to a musical beat (Peretz and Coltheart, 2003; Bispham, 2006).

3.1 tonality processing: connections to language

Most of the world’s musical systems use discrete pitches and intervals to create melodies, with the pitches drawn from musical scales of five to seven tones per octave (Reck, 1997). A widespread feature of music is the differential use of scale pitches such that some are perceived as more stable or structurally significant than others (Krumhansl, 1990). This differentiation of scale pitches in terms of stability or prominence has been termed a “tonal hierarchy,” and implicit knowledge of such hierarchies develops without any special musical training (Tillmann et al., 2000). This knowledge contributes to our subjective impressions that tones in a musical context have abstract perceptual properties, such as tension or resolution, that are distinct from standard psychophysical tone properties such as “higher or lower” or “louder or softer.”

Krumhansl and Cuddy (in press) argue that “tonal hierarchies…play a central role in how musical sequences are perceived, organized, remembered, and how expectations are formed during listening.” Furthermore, they note that this way of organizing pitch is unique to music, an assertion supported by the fact that language, which can use pitch in highly structured ways, has nothing resembling tonality (cf. Patel, 2008, Ch. 2). Indeed, Peretz and Coltheart (2003) have proposed that processing of tonality in music uses domain-specific brain mechanisms. This view is supported by neurological cases in which brain damage selectively impairs tonality processing while leaving more basic forms of auditory processing, as well as language processing, intact (e.g., Peretz, 1993).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Emerging disciplines: shaping new fields of scholarly inquiry in and beyond the humanities. OpenStax CNX. May 13, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11201/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Emerging disciplines: shaping new fields of scholarly inquiry in and beyond the humanities' conversation and receive update notifications?