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3. stack and queue

3.1. stack

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Stack
In computer science, a stack is a temporary abstract data type and data structure based on the principle of Last In First Out (LIFO). Stacks are used extensively at every level of a modern computer system. For example, a modern PC uses stacks at the architecture level, which are used in the basic design of an operating system for interrupt handling and operating system function calls. Among other uses, stacks are used to run a Java Virtual Machine, and the Java language itself has a class called "Stack", which can be used by the programmer. The stack is ubiquitous.

A stack-based computer system is one that stores temporary information primarily in stacks, rather than hardware CPU registers (a register-based computer system).

3.1.1. abstract data type

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

As an abstract data type, the stack is a container of nodes and has two basic operations: push and pop. Push adds a given node to the top of the stack leaving previous nodes below. Pop removes and returns the current top node of the stack. A frequently used metaphor is the idea of a stack of plates in a spring loaded cafeteria stack. In such a stack, only the top plate is visible and accessible to the user, all other plates remain hidden. As new plates are added, each new plate becomes the top of the stack, hiding each plate below, pushing the stack of plates down. As the top plate is removed from the stack, they can be used, the plates pop back up, and second plate becomes the top of the stack. Two important principles are illustrated by this metaphor, the Last In First Out principle is one. The second is that the contents of the stack are hidden. Only the top plate is visible, so to see what is on the third plate, the first and second plates will have to be removed.

Operations

In modern computer languages, the stack is usually implemented with more operations than just "push" and "pop". The length of a stack can often be returned as a parameter. Another helper operation top (also known as peek and peak) can return the current top element of the stack without removing it from the stack.

This section gives pseudocode for adding or removing nodes from a stack, as well as the length and top functions. Throughout we will use null to refer to an end-of-list marker or sentinel value, which may be implemented in a number of ways using pointers.

record Node {

data // The data being stored in the node

next // A reference to the next node; null for last node

}

record Stack {

Node stackPointer // points to the 'top' node; null for an empty stack

}

function push(Stack stack, Element element) { // push element onto stack

new(newNode) // Allocate memory to hold new node

newNode.data := element

newNode.next := stack.stackPointer

stack.stackPointer := newNode

}

function pop(Stack stack) {// increase the stack pointer and return 'top' node

// You could check if stack.stackPointer is null here.

// If so, you may wish to error, citing the stack underflow.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Data structures and algorithms. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10765/1.1
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