<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

3. stack and queue

3.1. stack

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Stack
In computer science, a stack is a temporary abstract data type and data structure based on the principle of Last In First Out (LIFO). Stacks are used extensively at every level of a modern computer system. For example, a modern PC uses stacks at the architecture level, which are used in the basic design of an operating system for interrupt handling and operating system function calls. Among other uses, stacks are used to run a Java Virtual Machine, and the Java language itself has a class called "Stack", which can be used by the programmer. The stack is ubiquitous.

A stack-based computer system is one that stores temporary information primarily in stacks, rather than hardware CPU registers (a register-based computer system).

3.1.1. abstract data type

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

As an abstract data type, the stack is a container of nodes and has two basic operations: push and pop. Push adds a given node to the top of the stack leaving previous nodes below. Pop removes and returns the current top node of the stack. A frequently used metaphor is the idea of a stack of plates in a spring loaded cafeteria stack. In such a stack, only the top plate is visible and accessible to the user, all other plates remain hidden. As new plates are added, each new plate becomes the top of the stack, hiding each plate below, pushing the stack of plates down. As the top plate is removed from the stack, they can be used, the plates pop back up, and second plate becomes the top of the stack. Two important principles are illustrated by this metaphor, the Last In First Out principle is one. The second is that the contents of the stack are hidden. Only the top plate is visible, so to see what is on the third plate, the first and second plates will have to be removed.

Operations

In modern computer languages, the stack is usually implemented with more operations than just "push" and "pop". The length of a stack can often be returned as a parameter. Another helper operation top (also known as peek and peak) can return the current top element of the stack without removing it from the stack.

This section gives pseudocode for adding or removing nodes from a stack, as well as the length and top functions. Throughout we will use null to refer to an end-of-list marker or sentinel value, which may be implemented in a number of ways using pointers.

record Node {

data // The data being stored in the node

next // A reference to the next node; null for last node

}

record Stack {

Node stackPointer // points to the 'top' node; null for an empty stack

}

function push(Stack stack, Element element) { // push element onto stack

new(newNode) // Allocate memory to hold new node

newNode.data := element

newNode.next := stack.stackPointer

stack.stackPointer := newNode

}

function pop(Stack stack) {// increase the stack pointer and return 'top' node

// You could check if stack.stackPointer is null here.

// If so, you may wish to error, citing the stack underflow.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Data structures and algorithms. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10765/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Data structures and algorithms' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask