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1. magnetic disks

1.1 magnetic disks overview

The magnetic disks are the foundation of external memory on virtually all computer system. Both removable and fixed disk or hard disk are used in computer system from personal computer to mainframe or supercpomputer.

  • Principle

– The disk is a metal or plastic platter coated with magnetizable material

– Data is recorded onto and later read from the disk using a conducting coil, the head

– Data is organized into concentric rings, called tracks, on the platter

– Tracks are separated by gaps

– Disk rotates at a constant speed – constant angular velocity

The number of data bits per track is a constant

The data density is higher on the inner tracks

– Logical data transfer unit is the sector

Sectors are identified on each track during the formatting process

  • Disk characteristics

- Single vs. multiple platters per drive (each platter has its own read/write head)

- Fixed vs. movable head. Fixed head has a head per track. Movable head uses one head per platter

- Removable vs. nonremovable platters. Removable platter can be removed from disk drive for storage of transfer to another machine

- Data accessing times:

+ Seek time -- position the head over the correct track

+ Rotational latency -- wait for the desired sector to come under the head

+ Access time -- seek time plus rotational latency

+ Block transfer time -- time to read the block (sector) off of the disk and

transfer it to main memory.

Figure 12.1. Disk Organization

1.2 raid technology

The RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disk) technology can obtain greater performance and higher availability. RAID refers to a family of techniquesfor using multiple disks as a paralle array of data storage devices with redundant built in to compensate for disk failure.

– Disk drive performance has not kept pace withimprovements in other parts of the system

– Limited in many cases by the electromechanical transport means

– Capacity of a high performance disk drive can be duplicated by operating many (much cheaper) disks in parallel with simultaneous access

– Data is distributed across all disks

– With many parallel disks operating as if they were a single unit, redundancy techniques can be used to guard against data loss in the unit (due to aggregate failure rate being higher)

– “RAID” developed at Berkeley – Redundant Array of Independent Disks

  • Six levels RAID: 0 – 5

– RAID 0

» No redundancy techniques are used

» Data is distributed over all disks in the array

» Data is divided into strips for actual storage similar in operation to interleaved

memory data storage

» RAID can be used to support high data transfer rates by having block transfer size be in multiples of the strip

» RAID can support low response time by having the block transfer size equal a strip --

support multiple strip transfers in parallel

– RAID 1

All disks are mirrored – duplicated Data is stored on a disk and its mirror Read from either the disk or its mirror Write must be done to both the disk and mirror

  • Fault recovery is easy -- use the data on the mirror
  • System is expensive!

– RAID 2

All disks are used for every access – disks are synchronized together

Data strips are small (byte)

Error correcting code computed across all disks and stored on additional disks

Uses fewer disks than RAID 1 but still expensive.Number of additional disks is

proportional to log of number of data disks

– RAID 3

Like RAID 2 however only a single redundant disk is used -- the parity drive

Parity bit is computed for the set of individual bits in the same position on all

Disks If a drive fails, parity information on the redundant disks can be used to calculate thedata from the failed disk “on the fly”

2. optical disks

Advent of CDs in the early 1980s revolutionized the audio and computer industries

  • Basic operations

» CD is operated using constant linear velocity

» Essentially one long track spiraled onto the disk

» Track passes under the disk’s head at a constant rate -- requires the disk to change rotational speed based on what part of the track you are on

» To write to the disk, a laser is used to burn pits into the track -- write once!

» During reads, a low power laser illuminates the track and its pits

- In the track, pits reflect light differently than no pits thus allowing you to store 1s and 0s

– Characteristics:

- Master disk is made using the laser

- Master is used to “press” copies in a mass production mechanical style

- Cheaper than production of information on magnetic disks

- Storage capacity roughly 775 NB or 550 3.5” disks

- Transfer rate standard is 176 MB/second

- Only economical for production of large quantities of disks

- Disks are removable and thus archival

- Slower than magnetic disks.

  • WORMs -- Write Once, Read Many disks

» User can produce CD ROMs in limited quantities

» Specially prepared disk is written to using a medium power laser

» Can be read many times just like a normal CD ROM

» Permits archival storage of user information, distribution of large amounts of information by a user.

  • Erasable optical disk

» Combines laser and magnetic technology to permit information storage

» Laser heats an area that can then have an efield orientation changed to alter information storage

» “State of the e-field” can be detected using polarized light during reads.

3. magnetic tape

– The first kind of secondary memory

– Still widely used

» Very cheap

» Very slow

– Sequential access

» Data is organized as records with physical air gaps between records

» One words is stored across the width of the tape and read using multiple read/write heads.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Computer architecture. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10761/1.1
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