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This course is a short series of lectures on Statistical Bioinformatics. Topics covered are listed in the Table of Contents. The notes were preparedby Ewa Paszek, Lukasz Wita and Marek Kimmel. The development of this course has been supported by NSF 0203396 grant.

1. introduction

Thousands of genes are being discovered for the first time by sequencing the genomes of model organisms, a reminder that much of the natural world remains to be explored at the molecular level. DNA microarrays provide a natural vehicle for this exploration. The model organisms are the first for which comprehensive genome-wide surveys of gene expression patterns or function are possible. The results should be viewed as maps that reflect the order and logic of the genetic program, rather than the physical order of genes on chromosomes . Exploration of the genome using DNA microarrays and other genome-scale technologies should narrow the gap in our knowledge of gene function and molecular biology.

2. dogma of molecular biology

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the elementary template carrying essential genetic code for every living organism. In bacteria and other simple cell organisms, DNA is distributed more or less throughout the cell. In the complex cells that make up plants, animals and in other multi-cellular organisms, most of the DNA is found in the chromosomes, which are located in the cell nucleus . The energy-generating organelles known as chloroplasts and mitochondria also carry DNA, as do many viruses. Pieces of DNA are pairs of molecules, which entwine like vines to form a double helix. DNA strands are composed of four nucleotide subunits. These are adenine (A) , thymine (T) , cytosine (C) and guanine (G) . Each base forms hydrogen bonds readily to only one other -- A to T and C to G. the entire nucleotide sequence of each strand is complementary to that of the other, and when separated, each may act as a template with which to replicate the other.The information contained by the DNA strand allows for development and control of any processes taking place in living organism over its lifetime span, not only on the cellular, but also on the whole system level. The general structure of the DNA is depicted on the Figure1.

The dna structure.

The DNA structure.

In order to read the information contained in DNA, first, their functional units, genes are transcribed during transcription into messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) ), which is based on the complementary DNA strand. mRNA molecules serve as templates for the protein synthesis; they are transported to the cytoplasm and repeatedly read by the ribosomes . Before the mRNA is ready to be translated , it undergoes several processes i.e. splicing, which means that the pre-mRNA is modified to remove certain stretches of non-coding sequences called introns . The stretches that remain includ protein-coding sequences and are called exons . Finally, consecutive three nucleotide bases of the mRNA sequence are translated into corresponding amino acids and linked together to form protein chains. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the cells, tissues and organs. Each protein has its unique functions. The process of reading content of a gene is depicted in Figure2.

In order to understand the role and function of the genes one needs the complete information about their mRNA transcripts and proteins. Unfortunately, exploring the protein functions is very difficult due to their unique 3-dimentional complicated structure and a shortage of efficient technologies. To overcome this difficulty one may concentrate on the mRNA molecules produced by the genes of interest (gene expression) and use this information to investigate the functional roles of the genes. This idea was a motivation for the development of microarrays technique, as a method allowing for studying the interaction between thousands of genes based on their mRNA transcript level.

The central dogma of molecular biology.

Block diagram representation

Cellular representation

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to bioinformatics. OpenStax CNX. Oct 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10240/1.3
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