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This article offers a brief outline of the development of both REKn and PReE at the Electronic Textual Cultures Laboratory (ETCL) at the University of Victoria, from proof of concept through to their current iterations, concluding with a discussion about their future adaptations, implementations, and integrations with other projects and partnerships. This narrative situates REKn and PReE within the context of prototyping as a research activity, and documents the life cycle of a complex digital humanities research program that is itself part of larger, ongoing, iterative programs of research. Much of the content of the present article has been presented in other forms elsewhere. See Appendix 1 for a list of addresses and presentations from which the present article is drawn.

2. conceptual backgrounds and critical contexts

2.1. conceptual backgrounds

The conceptual origins of REKn may be located in two fundamental shifts in literary studies in the 1980s—the emergence of New Historicism and the rise of the sociology of the text—and in the proliferation of large-scale text-corpus humanities computing projects in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

2.1.1. new historicism

New Historicism situated itself in opposition to earlier critical traditions that dismissed historical and cultural context as irrelevant to literary study, and proposed instead that “literature exists not in isolation from social questions but as a dynamic participant in the messy processes of cultural formation.” Thus, New Historicism eschewed the distinction between text and context, arguing that both “are equal partners in the production of culture” (Hall 2007: vii). In Renaissance studies, as elsewhere, this ideological shift challenged scholars to engage not only with the traditional canon of literary works but also with the whole corpus of primary materials at their disposal. As New Historicism blurred the lines between the literary and non-literary, its proponents were quick to illustrate that all cultural forms—literary and non-literary, textual and visual—could be freely and fruitfully “read” alongside and against one another. It is outside the purview of this article to evaluate the claims of New Historicism. Interested readers are directed to the following early critical assessments of New Historicism: Erickson 1987, Howard 1986, and Pechter 1987.

2.1.2. the sociology of text

A concurrent paradigm shift in bibliographical circles was the rise of the social theory of text, exemplified in the works of Jerome J. McGann (1983) and D. F. McKenzie (1986). “If the work is not confined to the historically contingent and the particular,” the social theory of text posited, “it is nevertheless only in its expressive textual form that we encounter it, and material conditions determine meanings” (Sutherland 1997: 5). In addition to being “an argument against the notion that the physical book is the disposable container,” as Kathryn Sutherland has suggested, “it is also an argument in favor of the significance of the text as a situated act or event, and therefore, under the conditions of its reproduction, necessarily multiple” (1997: 6).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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