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1. cache memory overview

Cache memory is the fast and small memory. The basis idea of using a cache is simple. When CPU need a word, it first looks in the cache. Only if the word is not there does it go to main memory. If a substantial fraction of the words are in the cache, the average access time can be greatly reduced. So the success or faillure thus depends on what fraction of the words are in cache. The idea solution is that when a word is referenced, it and some of its neighbors are brought from the large slow memory into the cache, so that the next time it can be accessed quickly.

  • Improving Performance

The memory mean access time, TM, is considered as follow:

TM = c + (1- h).m


c : the cache access time

m: the main memory access time

h: the hit ratio, which is the fraction of all references that can be satisfied out of cache (the success of cache), also the miss ratio is 1-h.

  • Cache memory is a critical component of the memory hierarchy.

Figure 10.1. The cache is logically between the CPU and main memory in the the memory hierarchy. Physically, there are several possible places it could be located.

  • Characteristics

– Compared to the size of main memory, cache is relatively small

– Operates at or near the speed of the processor

– Cache is very expensive compared to main memory

– Cache contains copies of sections of main memory

  • Cache is considered as the main memory interface

– Assume an access to main memory causes a block of K words to be transferred to the cache

– The block transferred from main memory is stored in the cache as a single unit called a slot, line, or page

– Once copied to the cache, individual words within a line can be accessed by the CPU

– Because of the high speeds involved with the cache, management of the data transfer and storage in the cache is done in hardware

- If there are 2n words in the main memory, then there will be M=2n /K blocks in the memory

– M will be much greater than the number of lines, C, in the cache

– Every line of data in the cache must be tagged in some way to identify what main memory block it is. The line of data and its tag are stored in the cache.

  • Factors in the cache design

- Mapping function between main memory and the cache

- Line replacement algorithm

- Write policy

- Block size

- Number and type of caches

2. cache organization and operations

Mapping function organization: Mapping functions since M>>C, how are blocks mapped to specific lines in cache

2.1 direct mapping

a/ Organization:

The simplest cache is known as a direct-mapped cache or direct mapping, it is shown in Figure 10.2.

– Direct mapping cache treats a main memory address as 3 distinct fields

+ Tag identifier

+ Line number identifier

+ Word identifier (offset)

– Word identifier specifies the specific word (or addressable unit) in a cache line that is to be read

– Line identifier specifies the physical line in cache that will hold the referenced address

– The tag is stored in the cache along with the data words of the line

Figure 10.2. Direct mapping cache Organization

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Computer architecture. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10761/1.1
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