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2.5.2 reliability

If test validity is defined as accuracy of measurement, test reliability is related to consistency of measurement. A reliable test score will be consistent across different characteristics of the testing situation. Unless test scores are relatively consistent, they cannot give any information at all about the ability measured. Another aspect of overall test reliability is rater reliability. Raters must maintain consistency in their own marking standards. This kind of reliability is called intra-marker reliability (Underhill, 1987). Or the same work marked by different raters should produce similar results, which is named inter-marker also by Underhill. If some raters rate more severely than others, the ratings of different raters are not consistent, and the scores obtained could not be considered to be reliable. Oral tests belong to the kind calling for subjective judgement on the part of the marker, so the scores awarded in an oral test cannot be believed to always have such high reliability.

It is also necessary to recognize that inconsistencies cannot be eliminated entirely. Nevertheless, it is possible to minimize the effects of the potential sources of inconsistencies under control in test design (Bachman and Palmer, 1996). Amongst factors affecting test performance, the characteristics of the test tasks are partly under control. In language test design and development, thus, it is possible to minimize variations in the test task characteristics that do not correspond to variations in target language tasks.

Test administration also involved in the concept of reliability has not been given proper attention at some universities at the present time. Administrating a test involves exam invigilators and such test conditions as classrooms, equipment, materials, exam rules and procedures dealing with test takers’ cheating.

2.5.3 practicality

Test practicality pertains to ‘the ways in which a test will be implemented, and, to a large degree, whether it will be developed and used at all’ (Bachman&Palmer, 1996, p. 35). It concerns practical matters such as the amount of time, human and material resources available for constructing a test, administering it, marking it, and interpreting the results. If the test resources required for implementing a test exceed the resources available, the test will be impractical. Human resources are a crucial component of test construction and administration involving such individuals as test writers, scorers or raters, and test administrators as well as clerical and technical support personnel. In fact, not all institutions have sufficient staff to be in charge of all these well-defined roles. One person may be in charge of several functions. Test writers, key personnel in the process of test development, are involved not only in writing tests but also in collecting materials, editing and recording. Material resources include space (the number of classrooms, language labs needed), equipment (typewriters, computers, cassette players, overhead projectors), test materials (test booklets, answer sheets, audiotapes). Time consists of test development time and the time required to complete the parts of each stage of the test development process.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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