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The focus on a number of different language sub-skills or categories can also help to improve marker reliability; the assessor is supposed to give each test taker a separate mark for each category. All these separate marks are then combined to give the overall score, which is related to the process of weighting. In most oral tests or test tasks some categories are more emphasized than others according to the test purpose(s), so a weighting system is used as shown in the following example taken from Underhill (1987, p. 97).

Grammarmarked out of 10 then multiplied by 3

Vocabularymarked out of 10 then multiplied by 3

Pronunciationmarked out of 10 then multiplied by 2

Fluencymarked out of 10 then multiplied by 1

Contentmarked out of 10 then multiplied by 1

Total score 10

In sum, it can be asserted that the marking key plays a very essential role in the design of language tests in general, of oral language tests in particular to ensure the quality of reliability. It must be involved in the whole process of test development from the beginning. Language teachers or test developers should thus take the ways to mark test performance into sound consideration throughout the test construction process.

In the oral test operationalization process, consequently, language teachers or test designers must take great care over not only the selection test types and proper elicitation techniques for the intended test tasks but also the design of a marking key for each test task.

2.5 qualities of a good test

The previous three sections are concerned with the techniques and procedures for developing oral language tests whereas Section 2.5 is related to the qualities of a good test, i.e. whether the test results can reveal test takers’ actual ability to orally use the language. A test used to elicit test takers’ actual language proficiency must reveal such qualities as validity, reliability and practicality.

2.5.1 validity

Test validity generally is concerned with the degree to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure. In other words, it refers to the correspondence between abilities to be assessed and real indication of these abilities in a test, so a test is said to be invalid when there is no relationship between them. The concept of validity includes such detailed aspects as content validity, construct validity and predictive validity. A test is said to have content validity if its content represents a sample of the language skills, structures, etc. with which it is meant to be concerned ( Hughes, 1989). When embarking on the test construction, a test writer should first draw up a table of test specifications, describing in very clear and precise terms the particular language skills and areas to be included in the test. Not less important is the construct validity of a test. A test with construct validity is capable of measuring certain specific characteristics in accordance with a theory of language behaviour and learning. In other words, construct validity ‘examines whether the instrument permit inferences about underlying abilities.’ (Cohen, 1996). According to Hughes (1989), the word ‘construct’ refers to ‘any underlying ability or trait which is hypothesised in a theory of language ability’. This ability or trait is defined by Bachman and Palmer (1996) as ‘the domain of generalisation to which our score interpretations generalize’. Certain learning theories or constructs are believed to underlie the acquisition of abilities and skills. Another approach to test validity is to measure the degree of the agreement between results of the test and those provided by some important task at some future point.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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