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Underhill (1987) classifies oral tests/test tasks into four main types: (1) the direct interview type, (2) the pre-arranged information gap tests, (3) tests where the learner prepares in advance, and (4) mechanical/entirely predictable tests. Each type requires some specific techniques to elicit test takers’ language performance named elicitation techniques. The four following sub-sections respectively summarize these four oral test types in combination with the involved elicitation techniques

2.4.2.1 the direct interview type

The direct interview is the most common and authentic type of oral test; there is no script and no preparation on the test taker’s part. The assessor or interviewer, of course, has quite a careful preparation, but not so rigid as to control exactly what the test taker says. This may result in difficulty in assessing the test performance consistently and reliably. (Underhill, 1987, p. 31)

The assessors should be flexible in choosing suitable and feasible techniques to well elicit the task of this type in a specific testing situation. The most common elicitation techniques used in this case are discussion/conversation, interview, form-filling and question and answer.

Discussion/conversation is associated with interaction between two or more people in which the assessor should create the right atmosphere in a very short time so that the test taker can respond to it. The topics discussed and the directions taken by the conversation are the result of this interaction. (Underhill, 1987, p. 45)

Interview, to some extent, is quite similar to discussion/conversation, but an interview is structured. That is to say, the assessor or interviewer maintains firm control and keeps the initiative; whatever the test taker says is in more or less response to the interviewer’s questions or statements. (Underhill, 1987, p. 54-56)

Form-filling is a technique in which the test taker and interviewer work together to fill in a form or questionaire. The questions is usually related to the test taker’s personal details, professional situation or language needs. Question and answer refers to a set of disconnected questions raised by the tester. The questions are graded according to difficulty to elicit the test taker’s opinions on certain topics. This technique may involve using different question types, giving cues for question formation, and naming. (Underhill, 1987, p. 58-59)

2.4.2.2 the pre-arranged information gap tests

In such tests, an information gap between two test takers, or between a test taker and the assessor, is deliberately created by the test designer. The test taker’s success and speed in bridging that gap are taken as an indication of his oral proficiency. (Underhill, 1987, p. 32)

The elicitation techniques proposed for this type of oral test are learner-learner description and re-creation, picture story and role-play.

Learner-learner description and re-creation technique requires one test taker to describe a design or construction of model building materials to another test taker who has to reconstruct the model from the description alone, without seeing the original. The technique consists of reporting description to partner, map-reading, and comparing models. (Underhill, 1987, p. 56-58)

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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