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Underhill (1987) classifies oral tests/test tasks into four main types: (1) the direct interview type, (2) the pre-arranged information gap tests, (3) tests where the learner prepares in advance, and (4) mechanical/entirely predictable tests. Each type requires some specific techniques to elicit test takers’ language performance named elicitation techniques. The four following sub-sections respectively summarize these four oral test types in combination with the involved elicitation techniques the direct interview type

The direct interview is the most common and authentic type of oral test; there is no script and no preparation on the test taker’s part. The assessor or interviewer, of course, has quite a careful preparation, but not so rigid as to control exactly what the test taker says. This may result in difficulty in assessing the test performance consistently and reliably. (Underhill, 1987, p. 31)

The assessors should be flexible in choosing suitable and feasible techniques to well elicit the task of this type in a specific testing situation. The most common elicitation techniques used in this case are discussion/conversation, interview, form-filling and question and answer.

Discussion/conversation is associated with interaction between two or more people in which the assessor should create the right atmosphere in a very short time so that the test taker can respond to it. The topics discussed and the directions taken by the conversation are the result of this interaction. (Underhill, 1987, p. 45)

Interview, to some extent, is quite similar to discussion/conversation, but an interview is structured. That is to say, the assessor or interviewer maintains firm control and keeps the initiative; whatever the test taker says is in more or less response to the interviewer’s questions or statements. (Underhill, 1987, p. 54-56)

Form-filling is a technique in which the test taker and interviewer work together to fill in a form or questionaire. The questions is usually related to the test taker’s personal details, professional situation or language needs. Question and answer refers to a set of disconnected questions raised by the tester. The questions are graded according to difficulty to elicit the test taker’s opinions on certain topics. This technique may involve using different question types, giving cues for question formation, and naming. (Underhill, 1987, p. 58-59) the pre-arranged information gap tests

In such tests, an information gap between two test takers, or between a test taker and the assessor, is deliberately created by the test designer. The test taker’s success and speed in bridging that gap are taken as an indication of his oral proficiency. (Underhill, 1987, p. 32)

The elicitation techniques proposed for this type of oral test are learner-learner description and re-creation, picture story and role-play.

Learner-learner description and re-creation technique requires one test taker to describe a design or construction of model building materials to another test taker who has to reconstruct the model from the description alone, without seeing the original. The technique consists of reporting description to partner, map-reading, and comparing models. (Underhill, 1987, p. 56-58)

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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