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Many people had to flee from former East European countries because they did not agree with the ideas of the political party in power.

In Zimbabwe we also find that many people flee to neighbouring countries, e.g. South Africa. When their political ideas differ from those of the ruling party, they are sometimes abused and tortured by members of the ruling party. This causes them to leave the country.

Ec onomic push factors

When the economy of a country collapses, people are forced to flee to other countries to find food. One such example is the famine in Ireland in 1840 when the potato crops failed. About five million people died due to the food scarcity.

Environmental push factors

Water plays an important role here – either too little (drought) – or too much (floods). In the USA and Canada this is a common problem. People can be forced to leave their homes to survive.

Activity 3:

To find examples of push factors by means of research

[lo 1.7]

In groups

Visit the library and find two examples of each of the following push factors:

a) Political factors

b) Economic factors

c) Environmental factors

2.2 Pull factors

P olitical pull factors

Sometimes countries with a democratic government is a popular destination for immigrants. Some persons living in a country where the political system allows very little freedom, may prefer to leave that country. One such example is the flow of immigrants from Eastern to Western Europe. However, this decreased considerably after the demolition of the Berlin Wall.

Ec onomical pull factors

People often move to areas offering better work opportunities. One such drawcard is the exploitation of natural resources, such as oil and gold. Can you think of more places or towns that owe their existence to minerals? Despite extreme climatic conditions, people still venture to these areas to earn large sums of money. One example is workers on oil drills in the North Sea.

Environmental factors

People prefer to live in an area with a temperate climate. They avoid areas that become either very hot or very cold. Others may prefer a very dry climate, for the sake of their health, for instance those who suffer from asthma.

Activity 4:

To find information on emigration by means of research


In pairs

Find information on the number of people who emigrated from South Africa between 1993 and 1997. Draw a graph indicating the number for every year, and establish if there has been an increase or decrease in the number of people who left the country.


Conduct research on one of the following types of migrants:

a) slavery

b) migrant labourers

c) students


Learning Outcomes (LOs)

LO 1

Geographical Enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

Assessment Standards(ASs)

This is seen when the learner:

1.2 interprets information from maps and atlases and from graphic and statististical

1.5 identifies and records information in the specific field [working with sources];

1.7 in various ways reports knowledge obtained during the study by formulating an argument based on information found; uses maps, diagrams and graphics; uses, where possible, computers in the presentation [putting the answer across].

LO 2



The learner will be able to demonstrate

geographical and environmental

knowledge and understanding.

This is clear when the learner:

2.1 identifies and compares various kinds of settlement patterns [people and places];

  1. identifies factors that influence the formation of settlement patterns (natural, economic, social/ political) [people and resources];

2.3 identifies crucial factors leading to changes in settlement patterns in South Africa, Africa and elsewhere [people and environment].



  • Emigration abroad.

The scarcity of jobs.

The safety situation in South Africa.

Farm murders.

Increased wave of violent crimes in South Africa, etc.

ACTIVITY 2 and 3

Own answers!


Own research.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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