# Physics in the science of complex systems - draft 0

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physics course for non-physicist complex systems researchers

## Physics in the science of complex systems – draft 0

The lectures are organized in lessons within thematic courses.

## Thermal and statistical physics

The main chapters are copied from the courses of Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik , Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA. If not, the source is precised intobrackets.

## Lesson 1

• Introduction
• Some qualitative observations
• Doing work
• Quality of energy

## Lesson 2

• Some simple simulations
• Work, heating, and the first law of thermodynamics
• The fundamental need for statistical approach
• Time and ensemble averages

## Lesson 3

• Models of matter

The ideal gas

Interparticle potentials

Lattice models

• Importance of simulations
• Summary

## Lesson 4

• Introduction
• The system
• Thermodynamic equilibrium
• Temperature
• Pressure equation of state

## Lesson 5

• Some thermodynamic processes
• Work
• The first law of thermodynamics
• Energy equation of state

## Lesson 6

• Heat capacity and enthalpy
• The second law of thermodynamics
• The thermodynamic temperature

## Lesson 7

• The second law and heat engine
• Entropy changes
• Equivalence of thermodynamic and ideal gas scale temperatures
• The thermodynamic pressure

## Lesson 8

• The fundamental thermodynamic relation
• The entropy of an ideal gas
• The third law of thermodynamics
• Free energies

## Lesson 9

• Introduction
• A simple example of a thermal interaction
• Counting microstates

Non-interacting spins

One-dimensional Ising model

A particle in a one-dimensional box

One-dimensional harmonic oscillator

A particle in a two-dimensional box

Two non-interacting identical particles and the semi-classical limit

Lesson 10

• The number of states of N non-interacting particles: semi- classical limit
• The microcanonical ensemble (fixed E, V, and N)
• Systems in contact with a heat bath: the canonical ensemble (fixed T, V, and N)
• Connection between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics

## Lesson 11

• Simple applications of the canonical ensemble
• Example of a simple thermometer
• Simulations of the microcanonical ensemble
• Simulations of the canonical ensemble

## Lesson 12

• Grand canonical ensemble (fixed T, V, and )
• Entropy and disorder
• The volume of a hypersphere
• Fluctuations in the canonical ensemble
• Molecular dynamics

(Course from North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA:

## Lesson 13

1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Maxwell relations

1.4.3 Applications of the Maxwell relations

Internal energy of an ideal gas

Relation between the specific heats

## Lesson 14

1.4.4 Applications to irreversible processes

The Joule or free expansion process

Joule-Thomson process

• Equilibrium between phases

Equilibrium conditions

Clausius-Clapeyron equation

Simple phase diagrams

Pressure dependence of the melting point

Pressure dependence of the boiling point

The vapor pressure curve

Lesson 15

• Lattice gas and Ising model

(Introduction to lattice gas from Victor Batista, Chemistry department, Yale University, New Haven, NE, USA:

(Applet of ising model, from A. Peter young, Physics department, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA:

http://bartok.ucsc.edu/peter/java/ising/keep/ ising.html)

• Phase transitions

(Generalities from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Phase_transition)

• A geometric phase transition: percolation

(Lectures notes from the MIT NSE Virtual Reading Room, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA:

## Lesson 16

• Brownian motion

(Introduction from the physics department of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia:

• Chaos and self-organization

(Introduction to chaos theory from the center of complex quantum systems, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA:

Generalities from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self- organization)

## Lesson 17

• Fractals

(Introduction from Michael Frame, Benoit Mandelbrot, and Nial Neger, Yale University, New Haven, NE, USA:

http://classes.yale.edu/Fractals/)

• Sand Piles

(Introduction from Benoît Masson, Laboratoire Informatique Signaux et systèmes of Sofia Antipolis, France, EU:

• Spin glasses

(Short introduction&references from Daniel Stariolo, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande doSul, Porto Alegre, Brazil:

## Quantum physics made relatively simple

Hans Bethe, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Presentation of quantum theory and mechanics through their histories.

3 courses of about 45-50 mn

Video and audio versions

Slides are presented in parallel to the video documents

## 2.3 interpretation works on the wave function, the heisenberg uncertainty principle, and the pauli exclusion principle

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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