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The timber resources of Lebanon were already considerably depleted by 2,000 B.C. but they have continued to be exploited right down to the present time. Olive oil, grain, grapes, sheep and cattle were products in antiquity. Slaves had always been used some, but after 2,000 B.C. large numbers were imported from Egypt, so that it was soon not uncommon for households to have three. (Ref. 88 , 213 )

Iraq and syria

1. mesopotamia, proper

The term "Sumerian" has been coined by scholars from the place name of "Sumer" which by the third millennium was used to mean southern Mesopotamia as apposed to Akkad, the northern part. Sumeria was a city civilization and the important cities of Ur, Uruk, Larsa, Eridu and Kish had populations ranging from 15,000 to 250,000. One or more temple communities constituted a city, with priest administration and work-gangs to operate the irrigation system. The land of the city was divided into several categories, with some fields owned by the gods and worked on their behalf, some fields rented out annually to individuals and others awarded to individuals, rent-free.

The first dynasty of Ur has been dated archaeologically and historically from the King- lists (royal genealogical tablets found on the site) to about 2,700 B.C., but there was a high civilization at Ur before this, perhaps with the city functioning under the suzerainty of the Erech Dynasty. At least what appears to have been a royal cemetery has been excavated, dated prior to the first dynasty of Ur, in which the ritual of burial included human sacrifice, varying from six to seventy or eighty people, sometimes including asses and carts with grooms and various women's bodies. There was no evidence of violence; the men and women sacrificial attendants probably simply drank a drug and went quietly to sleep. Nothing like human sacrifice was ever mentioned from the later Sumeria. At any rate, the actual, historical first dynasty of Ur was that of Mes-an-ni-pad-da of about 2,700 B.C. and it lasted supposedly for 177 years. During the later part of this time, at about 2,600 B.C. it had succeeded in conquering various surrounding areas, under King Urukagina. This was followed by the usurpation of neighboring Umma by King Lugalzaggesi. Situated on the flat lands of the lower Euphrates, Sumer had no natural defenses and the cities became tempting objects of plunder to the barbarous people around. About 2,300 B.C. Sumeria was conquered by the neighboring Akkadians under their great leader, Sargon I. The Sumerian culture seemed to continue in the new, combined empire, however, and a "Golden Age of Ur" resulted. Sargon wrote of ships laden with goods in harbor at his capital and there were caravans of 200 donkeys traveling 12 to 15 hours a day plying between Armenia and Iraq. From 2,112 to 2,015 B.C. Ur remained the capital of this great empire, ruled by the five kings of the third dynasty. Iraq had a population of between four and five million at that time.

One of the characteristic features of each great Sumerian city was the ziggurat and that of Ur has been the best preserved. It has been suggested that if the Sumerians came originally from the Caucasus, one might assume that they felt that their gods had to have a mountain to stand or live on, and so they built the ziggurats, as substitutes. Ur was destroyed sometime after 2,000 B.C. and then for awhile it was under Isin lordship, then under the city of Larsa and finally under the Elamites who came from south Persia. The Elamite prince, Warad-Sin, who became king of Ur, rebuilt and enlarged the temples of the ancient city and his successor, Rim-sin served as king of Larsa also, and during his reign the population of the "old town" of Ur, that is, within the original walls, included an estimated 4,250 houses, probably with 34,000 people. The whole city, then, must have exceeded 250,000 and may have been twice that large. It was a manufacturing center with raw materials imported, sometimes from overseas via the Persian Gulf. Gold, copper ore, hard woods, ivory, pearls and precious stones were all brought by ship and recorded in bills of lading. (Ref. 238 , 28 , 213 )

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Cied
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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