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1. computer memory system and characteristics

1.1 computer memory overview

The memory is that part of computer where programs and data are stored. The basical concept is the following:

  • Bits

The basic unit of memory is the binary digit called a bit. A bit may contain a 0 or 1. It is the simplest possible unit

  • Memory addresses

- Memories consist of a number of cells or locations each of which can store a piece of information. Each location has a number called its address, by which program can refer to it. The cells is the smallest addressable

- If an address has m bits, the maximum number of cells addressable is 2m.

- Byte: 8-bits

- Bytes are grouped into words. The significance of word is that most instruction operate on entire word. A computer with a 32bit/word has 4 bytes/word

  • Byte ordering

- The bytes in a word can be numbered from left-to-right or right-to-left.

- The former system, where the numbering begin at the “big” (i.e, high-order) end is called a big endian computer, such as the SPARC or the big IBM mainframes. In contras it is a little endian computer, such as the Intel family using right-to-left numbering for the representation of a 32 bit computer.

1.2 characteristics of memory system

  • Capacity: the amount of information that can be contained in a memory unit -- usually in terms of words or bytes
  • Memory word: the natural unit of organization in the memory, typically the number of bits used to represent a number
  • Addressable unit: the fundamental data element size that can be addressed in the memory -- typically either the word size or individual bytes
  • Unit of transfer: The number of data elements transferred at a time – usually bits in main memory and blocks in secondary memory
  • Transfer rate: Rate at which data is transferred to/from the memory device
  • Access time:

– For RAM, the time to address the unit and perform the transfer

– For non-random access memory, the time to position the R/W head over the desired location

  • Memory cycle time: Access time plus any other time required before a second access can be started
  • Access technique: how are memory contents accessed

– Random access:

» Each location has a unique physical address

» Locations can be accessed in any order and all access times are the same

» What we term “RAM” is more aptly called

read/write memory since this access technique also applies to ROMs as well

» Example: main memory

– Sequential access:

» Data does not have a unique address

» Must read all data items in sequence until the desired item is found

» Access times are highly variable

» Example: tape drive units

– Direct access:

» Data items have unique addresses

» Access is done using a combination of moving to a general memory “area” followed by a sequential access to reach the

desired data item

» Example: disk drives

– Associative access:

» A variation of random access memory

» Data items are accessed based on their contents rather than their actual location

» Search all data items in parallel for a match to a given search pattern

» All memory locations searched in parallel without regard to the size of the memory

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Computer architecture. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10761/1.1
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