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1. computer memory system and characteristics

1.1 computer memory overview

The memory is that part of computer where programs and data are stored. The basical concept is the following:

  • Bits

The basic unit of memory is the binary digit called a bit. A bit may contain a 0 or 1. It is the simplest possible unit

  • Memory addresses

- Memories consist of a number of cells or locations each of which can store a piece of information. Each location has a number called its address, by which program can refer to it. The cells is the smallest addressable

- If an address has m bits, the maximum number of cells addressable is 2m.

- Byte: 8-bits

- Bytes are grouped into words. The significance of word is that most instruction operate on entire word. A computer with a 32bit/word has 4 bytes/word

  • Byte ordering

- The bytes in a word can be numbered from left-to-right or right-to-left.

- The former system, where the numbering begin at the “big” (i.e, high-order) end is called a big endian computer, such as the SPARC or the big IBM mainframes. In contras it is a little endian computer, such as the Intel family using right-to-left numbering for the representation of a 32 bit computer.

1.2 characteristics of memory system

  • Capacity: the amount of information that can be contained in a memory unit -- usually in terms of words or bytes
  • Memory word: the natural unit of organization in the memory, typically the number of bits used to represent a number
  • Addressable unit: the fundamental data element size that can be addressed in the memory -- typically either the word size or individual bytes
  • Unit of transfer: The number of data elements transferred at a time – usually bits in main memory and blocks in secondary memory
  • Transfer rate: Rate at which data is transferred to/from the memory device
  • Access time:

– For RAM, the time to address the unit and perform the transfer

– For non-random access memory, the time to position the R/W head over the desired location

  • Memory cycle time: Access time plus any other time required before a second access can be started
  • Access technique: how are memory contents accessed

– Random access:

» Each location has a unique physical address

» Locations can be accessed in any order and all access times are the same

» What we term “RAM” is more aptly called

read/write memory since this access technique also applies to ROMs as well

» Example: main memory

– Sequential access:

» Data does not have a unique address

» Must read all data items in sequence until the desired item is found

» Access times are highly variable

» Example: tape drive units

– Direct access:

» Data items have unique addresses

» Access is done using a combination of moving to a general memory “area” followed by a sequential access to reach the

desired data item

» Example: disk drives

– Associative access:

» A variation of random access memory

» Data items are accessed based on their contents rather than their actual location

» Search all data items in parallel for a match to a given search pattern

» All memory locations searched in parallel without regard to the size of the memory

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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with the given example MOV BX,AX describe the sequence that will be followed using instruction state diagram
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Source:  OpenStax, Computer architecture. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10761/1.1
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