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0 to a.d. 100

Backward to 100 B.C. to 0

Contrary to what devout Christians might like to believe, the birth of Christ had very little effect on the world at large during this first one hundred years. Pagan Rome continued to dominate western Europe, the Mediterranean and north Africa, dividing the Middle East with the great Parthian Empire. A new power developed in south central Asia and part of India - the Kushan Empire, while the far advanced Chinese continued under the Han Dynasty. Since this chapter does begin the Christian era, however, we shall start our regular discussions of the Christian church at this time.

The christian church

In this first century Paul (who had actually never seen the living Jesus) and others gradually changed the simple teachings of Jesus into the complex sacerdotal religion of Christianity, merging the principle ideas of many oriental faiths into the new religion. Each of the great cults of the Mediterranean region had "mysteries" which were usually ceremonies of purification, sacrifice, initiation, revelation and regeneration centering about the death and resurrection of the god. All sects assumed the possibility of magic and miracles, as well as the promise of personal immortality, of an endless happiness after a life of subjection, poverty or toil. This was the final and irresistible attraction of the oriental faiths and of the Christianity that absorbed and finally succeeded them. The entire western world seemed ready and prepared for the new Christ but initially the following was confined largely to Greeks and to urban merchants. (Ref. 48 , 213 )

Very recently some fifty-two papyrus texts, including gospels and other secret writings, some dating from this early Christian era, were found near Nag Hammadi in the upper Egyptian desert in an earthenware jar. These so-called "Gnostic" writings describe many of the people and events found in the New Testament, including many alleged quotations from Jesus, but with a greatly different perspective than found in orthodox Christianity. These texts were apparently hidden at some later time when their proponents were under indictment as "heretics". The writings included, for example, the "Gospel of Mary", which depicts Mary Magdalene as one favored with visions and insight surpassing even Peter. Some of these Gnostic Gospels discuss the possibility of the ultimate God being feminine and most indicate a belief that Jesus never was human and existed entirely as a spirit.

The Gnostics gave a better place for women in religion and had no hierarchy of elders, priests, bishops, etc., feeling that each individual looked within himself for God and guidance. Dr. Elaine Pagels, author of the text describing these recent finds, feels that this individualism in their philosophy is the reason that the "orthodox" church, with its social and political organization, won out over the Gnostics. (Ref. 163 ) Still further sources of early Christian doctrine will be discussed under NORTHEAST AFRICA, below. (Continue to Christian Church 2nd Century)

Forward to A.D. 101 to 200

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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