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The objective of this session is to introduce the subject of software engineering. When you have read this session you will understand what software engineering is and why it is important, know the answers to key questions which provide an introduction to software engineering, understand ethical and professional issues which are important for software engineers.

Introduction

Virtually all countries now depend on complex computer-based systems. More and more products incorporate computers and controlling software in some form. The software in these systems represents a large and increasing proportion of the total system costs. Therefore, producing software in a cost-effective way is essential for the functioning of national and international economies.

Software engineering is an engineering discipline whose goal is the cost-effective development of software systems. Software is abstract and intangible. It is not constrained by materials, governed by physical laws or by manufacturing processes. In some ways, this simplifies software engineering as there are no physical limitations on the potential of software. In other ways, however, this lack of natural constraints means that software can easily become extremely complex and hence very difficult to understand.

Software engineering is still a relatively young discipline. The notion of ‘software engineering’ was first proposed in 1968 at a conference held to discuss what was then called the ‘software crisis’. This software crisis resulted directly from the introduction of powerful, third generation computer hardware. Their power made hitherto unrealisable computer applications a feasible proposition. The resulting software was orders of magnitude larger and more complex than previous software systems.

Early experience in building these systems showed that an informal approach to software development was not good enough. Major projects were sometimes years late. They cost much more than originally predicted, were unreliable, difficult to maintain and performed poorly. Software development was in crisis. Hardware costs were tumbling whilst software costs were rising rapidly. New techniques and methods were needed to control the complexity inherent in large software systems.

These techniques have become part of software engineering and are now widely although not universally used. However, there are still problems in producing complex software which meets user expectations, is delivered on time and to budget. Many software projects still have problems and this has led to some commentators (Pressman, 1997) suggesting that software engineering is in a state of chronic affliction.

As our ability to produce software has increased so too has the complexity of the software systems required. New technologies resulting from the convergence of computers and communication systems place new demands on software engineers. For this reason and because many companies do not apply software engineering techniques effectively, we still have problems. Things are not as bad as the doomsayers suggest but there is clearly room for improvement.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Core Java Unit Test-1(CAJ003)
Download Core Java Quiz PDF eBook
50 Pages
2012
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Core Java Unit Test-1(CAJ003) Quiz

Question: _______variables are the local variables that are accessed by the function in which the variables are declared.

Choices:

Static

Automatic

Instance

Constant

Question: Which language is a Object Oriented Programming language?

Choices:

Basic

COBOL

Java

C

Question: ______ is the feature of OOPS that implies that the non-essential details of an object are hidden from the user and an access is provided to its essential details.

Choices:

Inheritance

Abstraction

Polymorphism

Encapsulation

Question: Which languages use the procedural programming methodology?

Choices:

Pascal, Java

FORTRAN, C

C, Java

Pascal, C

Question: What is the default value of the float data type?

Choices:

0.0

0

1.1

1

Question: What is the type of inheritance in which a subclass is derived from more than one super class known as?

Choices:

Single Inheritance

Multiple Inheritance

Multilevel Inheritance

Hybrid Inheritance

Question: What is the acronym for OOP?

Choices:

Object Oriented Programming

Object Orientation programming

Object Oriented Program

Object Oriented Procedure

Question: Identify the feature of OOPS that means ignoring the non-essential details of an object and concentrating on its essential features?

Choices:

Inheritance

Encapsulation

Abstraction

Polymorphism

Question: Which language uses the simple sequential programming methodology?

Choices:

C

Java

FORTRAN

Pascal

Question: Consider the statements: Statement A: The name of a variable can begin with a digit. Statement B: The name of a variable can contain white spaces. Identify the correct option.

Choices:

Statement A is true and statement B is false.

Statement A is false and statement B is true.

Both, statements, A and B, are true.

Both, statements, A and B, are false.

Question: Predict the output of the expression, 16 % 3?

Choices:

5

0

1

4

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