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Key concepts and summary

The ratios of the rate of change in concentrations of a reaction are equal to the ratios of the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. The sign of the coefficient of X is positive when the concentration increases and negative when it decreases. We learned to approach three basic types of equilibrium problems. When given the concentrations of the reactants and products at equilibrium, we can solve for the equilibrium constant; when given the equilibrium constant and some of the concentrations involved, we can solve for the missing concentrations; and when given the equilibrium constant and the initial concentrations, we can solve for the concentrations at equilibrium.

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

A reaction is represented by this equation: A ( a q ) + 2 B ( a q ) 2 C ( a q ) K c = 1 × 10 3

(a) Write the mathematical expression for the equilibrium constant.

(b) Using concentrations ≤1 M , make up two sets of concentrations that describe a mixture of A, B, and C at equilibrium.

K c = [ C ] 2 [ A ] [ B ] 2 . [A] = 0.1 M , [B] = 0.1 M , [C] = 1 M ; and [A] = 0.01, [B]= 0.250, [C] = 0.791.

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A reaction is represented by this equation: 2 W ( a q ) X ( a q ) + 2 Y ( a q ) K c = 5 × 10 −4

(a) Write the mathematical expression for the equilibrium constant.

(b) Using concentrations of ≤1 M , make up two sets of concentrations that describe a mixture of W, X, and Y at equilibrium.

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What is the value of the equilibrium constant at 500 °C for the formation of NH 3 according to the following equation?

N 2 ( g ) + 3 H 2 ( g ) 2 NH 3 ( g )

An equilibrium mixture of NH 3 ( g ), H 2 ( g ), and N 2 ( g ) at 500 °C was found to contain 1.35 M H 2 , 1.15 M N 2 , and 4.12 × 10 −1 M NH 3 .

K c = 6.00 × 10 −2

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Hydrogen is prepared commercially by the reaction of methane and water vapor at elevated temperatures.

CH 4 ( g ) + H 2 O ( g ) 3 H 2 ( g ) + CO ( g )

What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction if a mixture at equilibrium contains gases with the following concentrations: CH 4 , 0.126 M ; H 2 O, 0.242 M ; CO, 0.126 M ; H 2 1.15 M , at a temperature of 760 °C?

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A 0.72-mol sample of PCl 5 is put into a 1.00-L vessel and heated. At equilibrium, the vessel contains 0.40 mol of PCl 3 ( g ) and 0.40 mol of Cl 2 ( g ). Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for the decomposition of PCl 5 to PCl 3 and Cl 2 at this temperature.

K c = 0.50

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At 1 atm and 25 °C, NO 2 with an initial concentration of 1.00 M is 3.3 × 10 −3 % decomposed into NO and O 2 . Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction.

2 NO 2 ( g ) 2 NO ( g ) + O 2 ( g )

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Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant K P for the reaction 2 NO ( g ) + Cl 2 ( g ) 2 NOCl ( g ) from these equilibrium pressures: NO, 0.050 atm; Cl 2 , 0.30 atm; NOCl, 1.2 atm.

The equilibrium equation is
K P = 1.9 × 10 3

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When heated, iodine vapor dissociates according to this equation:

I 2 ( g ) 2 I ( g )

At 1274 K, a sample exhibits a partial pressure of I 2 of 0.1122 atm and a partial pressure due to I atoms of 0.1378 atm. Determine the value of the equilibrium constant, K P , for the decomposition at 1274 K.

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A sample of ammonium chloride was heated in a closed container.

NH 4 Cl ( s ) NH 3 ( g ) + HCl ( g )

At equilibrium, the pressure of NH 3 ( g ) was found to be 1.75 atm. What is the value of the equilibrium constant K P for the decomposition at this temperature?

K P = 3.06

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Questions & Answers

what are the six types of elements
Rebecca Reply
which table is flammable
Blessing Reply
I haven't gotten to tables o 😥
Rebecca
pls how can I give an IUPAC nomenclature in organic chemistry
Moshood Reply
Paul's exclusion principle
Anuforo Reply
what do you mean by d block ,give more details element
Agburum Reply
Define chemical formula
Kevin Reply
they are the mathematical representation of chemicals I guess
Uche
Bohr model of hydrogen atom
Muhammad Reply
what is important of this model
nagesh
what is the main reaction between sodium and chlorine
Akeem Reply
when a sodium atom is transferred an electron to a chloride atom forming a sodium cation and a chlorde anoin both ions are compltely valence shells and a energetically more stable this reaction is extremely more exothermic producing a bright yellow light abd a great deal of heat energy
sani
well what kind of sodium
coland
sodium chloride
coland
Tyropanoic acid and its salt sodium tyropanoate are radiocontrast agents used in cholecystography (X-ray diagnosis of gallstones). Trade names include Bilopaque, Lumopaque, Tyropaque, and Bilopac. The molecule contains three heavy iodine atoms which obstruct X-rays in the same way as the calcium in
coland
Sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) is a commonly used synonym for 7-ethyl-2-methyl-4-undecanyl sulfate sodium salt which is anionic surfactant that is the active component of the sclerosant drug Sotradecol. It is commonly used in the treatment of varicose and spider veins of the leg, during the procedu
coland
Sodium stibogluconate, sold under the brand name Pentostam among others, is a medication used to treat leishmaniasis. This includes leishmaniasis of the cutaneous, visceral, and mucosal types. Some combination of miltefosine, paramycin and liposomal amphotericin B; however, may be recommended due to
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Sodium picosulfate (INN, also known as sodium picosulphate) is a Contact stimulant laxative used as a treatment for constipation or to prepare the large bowel before colonoscopy or surgery. It is sold under the trade names Sodipic Picofast, Laxoberal, Laxoberon, Purg-Odan, Picolax, Guttalax, Namilax
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Ipodate sodium (sodium iopodate) is an iodine-containing radiopaque contrast media used for X-rays. The drug is given orally and the resulting contrast allows for easy resolution of the bile duct and gall bladder. Other uses Although not FDA approved, ipodate sodium has been used to treat Graves'
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Sodium ferric gluconate complex (brand name ferrlecit by Sanofi), is an intravenously administered iron product indicated in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. It is frequently used in patients undergoing hemodialysis, those undergoing erythropoietin therapy, and/or patients who have chronic k
coland
Dehydrocholic acid is a synthetic bile acid, manufactured by the oxidation of cholic acid. It acts as a hydrocholeretic, increasing bile output to clear increased bile acid load.
coland
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is an aminopolycarboxylic acid and a colourless, water-soluble solid. Its conjugate base is ethylenediaminetetraacetate. It is widely used to dissolve limescale. Its usefulness arises because of its role as a hexadentate ("s
coland
Sodium aurothiomalate (INN, known in the United States as gold sodium thiomalate) is a gold compound that is used for its immunosuppressive anti-rheumatic effects. Along with an orally-administered gold salt, auranofin, it is one of only two gold compounds currently employed in modern medicine. Med
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Sodium ascorbate is one of a number of mineral salts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The molecular formula of this chemical compound is C6H7NaO6. As the sodium salt of ascorbic acid, it is known as a mineral ascorbate. It has not been demonstrated to be more bioavailable than any other form of vitamin
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Diatrizoic acid (or its anionic form, diatrizoate), also known as amidotrizoic acid, or 3,5-diacetamido-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid, is a radiocontrast agent containing iodine. Trade names include Hypaque, Gastrografin, Iothalmate and Urografin, the latter being a combination of the sodium and meglum
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Sodium acetrizoate (rINN, trade names Urokon, Triurol and Salpix), the sodium salt of acetrizoic acid, is a high-osmolality, water-soluble, iodine-based radiographic contrast medium no longer in clinical use. Acetrizoate was developed by V.H. Wallingford of Mallinckrodt, and introduced in 1950; it
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i think some was missed
coland
what chlorine L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Alpha-GPC rapidly delive
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Choline Theophyllinate , also known as oxtriphylline, is a cough medicine derived from xanthine that acts as a bronchodilator to open up airways in the lung. Chemically, it is a salt of choline and Theophylline. It classifies as an expectorant. The drug is available under the brand names Choledyl an
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Choline (/ˈkoʊlin/) is a water-soluble vitamin. It is usually grouped within the B-complex vitamins. The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation (X− on the right denotes an undefined counteranion). The cation appears in the
coland
thanks
sani
please what is redox reaction
BABARINDE
hydrogen reacting with water
Iyenge Reply
what is matter
Godgift Reply
matter is anything that has Mass and can occupy space
Moshood
apart from those device there is there any device
Eke Reply
how many elements do we have
ARUOTURE Reply
Modern Electronic Theory
Levi Reply
a new way or an improvement in modern electrical products.
Andrew
find the volume of oxygen produced from the electrolysis of acidified water of a current of a 2A was passed through the electrolysis of acidified water for 2 hours
Ngwu Reply
14400J
Ese
wrong question, go through it. oxygen cannot be produced.
Andrew
A group of atoms that are connected by chemical bounds
Valerie Reply
molecule
NARCOS_
the atoms are found in the shell, it is called atomic bond.
Andrew

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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