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Binary acids

Some compounds containing hydrogen are members of an important class of substances known as acids. The chemistry of these compounds is explored in more detail in later chapters of this text, but for now, it will suffice to note that many acids release hydrogen ions, H + , when dissolved in water. To denote this distinct chemical property, a mixture of water with an acid is given a name derived from the compound’s name. If the compound is a binary acid    (comprised of hydrogen and one other nonmetallic element):

  1. The word “hydrogen” is changed to the prefix hydro-
  2. The other nonmetallic element name is modified by adding the suffix - ic
  3. The word “acid” is added as a second word

For example, when the gas HCl (hydrogen chloride) is dissolved in water, the solution is called hydrochloric acid . Several other examples of this nomenclature are shown in [link] .

Names of Some Simple Acids
Name of Gas Name of Acid
HF( g ), hydrogen fluoride HF( aq ), hydrofluoric acid
HCl( g ), hydrogen chloride HCl( aq ), hydrochloric acid
HBr( g ), hydrogen bromide HBr( aq ), hydrobromic acid
HI( g ), hydrogen iodide HI( aq ), hydroiodic acid
H 2 S( g ), hydrogen sulfide H 2 S( aq ), hydrosulfuric acid

Oxyacids

Many compounds containing three or more elements (such as organic compounds or coordination compounds) are subject to specialized nomenclature rules that you will learn later. However, we will briefly discuss the important compounds known as oxyacids , compounds that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and at least one other element, and are bonded in such a way as to impart acidic properties to the compound (you will learn the details of this in a later chapter). Typical oxyacids consist of hydrogen combined with a polyatomic, oxygen-containing ion. To name oxyacids:

  1. Omit “hydrogen”
  2. Start with the root name of the anion
  3. Replace – ate with – ic , or – ite with – ous
  4. Add “acid”

For example, consider H 2 CO 3 (which you might be tempted to call “hydrogen carbonate”). To name this correctly, “hydrogen” is omitted; the – ate of carbonate is replace with – ic ; and acid is added—so its name is carbonic acid. Other examples are given in [link] . There are some exceptions to the general naming method (e.g., H 2 SO 4 is called sulfuric acid, not sulfic acid, and H 2 SO 3 is sulfurous, not sulfous, acid).

Names of Common Oxyacids
Formula Anion Name Acid Name
HC 2 H 3 O 2 acetate acetic acid
HNO 3 nitrate nitric acid
HNO 2 nitrite nitrous acid
HClO 4 perchlorate perchloric acid
H 2 CO 3 carbonate carbonic acid
H 2 SO 4 sulfate sulfuric acid
H 2 SO 3 sulfite sulfurous acid
H 3 PO 4 phosphate phosphoric acid

Key concepts and summary

Chemists use nomenclature rules to clearly name compounds. Ionic and molecular compounds are named using somewhat-different methods. Binary ionic compounds typically consist of a metal and a nonmetal. The name of the metal is written first, followed by the name of the nonmetal with its ending changed to – ide . For example, K 2 O is called potassium oxide. If the metal can form ions with different charges, a Roman numeral in parentheses follows the name of the metal to specify its charge. Thus, FeCl 2 is iron(II) chloride and FeCl 3 is iron(III) chloride. Some compounds contain polyatomic ions; the names of common polyatomic ions should be memorized. Molecular compounds can form compounds with different ratios of their elements, so prefixes are used to specify the numbers of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound. Examples include SF 6 , sulfur hexafluoride, and N 2 O 4 , dinitrogen tetroxide. Acids are an important class of compounds containing hydrogen and having special nomenclature rules. Binary acids are named using the prefix hydro- , changing the – ide suffix to – ic , and adding “acid;” HCl is hydrochloric acid. Oxyacids are named by changing the ending of the anion to – ic , and adding “acid;” H 2 CO 3 is carbonic acid.

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Name the following compounds:

(a) CsCl

(b) BaO

(c) K 2 S

(d) BeCl 2

(e) HBr

(f) AlF 3

(a) cesium chloride; (b) barium oxide; (c) potassium sulfide; (d) beryllium chloride; (e) hydrogen bromide; (f) aluminum fluoride

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Name the following compounds:

(a) NaF

(b) Rb 2 O

(c) BCl 3

(d) H 2 Se

(e) P 4 O 6

(f) ICl 3

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Write the formulas of the following compounds:

(a) rubidium bromide

(b) magnesium selenide

(c) sodium oxide

(d) calcium chloride

(e) hydrogen fluoride

(f) gallium phosphide

(g) aluminum bromide

(h) ammonium sulfate

(a) RbBr; (b) MgSe; (c) Na 2 O; (d) CaCl 2 ; (e) HF; (f) GaP; (g) AlBr 3 ; (h) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4

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Write the formulas of the following compounds:

(a) lithium carbonate

(b) sodium perchlorate

(c) barium hydroxide

(d) ammonium carbonate

(e) sulfuric acid

(f) calcium acetate

(g) magnesium phosphate

(h) sodium sulfite

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Write the formulas of the following compounds:

(a) chlorine dioxide

(b) dinitrogen tetraoxide

(c) potassium phosphide

(d) silver(I) sulfide

(e) aluminum nitride

(f) silicon dioxide

(a) ClO 2 ; (b) N 2 O 4 ; (c) K 3 P; (d) Ag 2 S; (e) AlN; (f) SiO 2

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Write the formulas of the following compounds:

(a) barium chloride

(b) magnesium nitride

(c) sulfur dioxide

(d) nitrogen trichloride

(e) dinitrogen trioxide

(f) tin(IV) chloride

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Each of the following compounds contains a metal that can exhibit more than one ionic charge. Name these compounds:

(a) Cr 2 O 3

(b) FeCl 2

(c) CrO 3

(d) TiCl 4

(e) CoO

(f) MoS 2

(a) chromium(III) oxide; (b) iron(II) chloride; (c) chromium(VI) oxide; (d) titanium(IV) chloride; (e) cobalt(II) oxide; (f) molybdenum(IV) sulfide

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Each of the following compounds contains a metal that can exhibit more than one ionic charge. Name these compounds:

(a) NiCO 3

(b) MoO 3

(c) Co(NO 3 ) 2

(d) V 2 O 5

(e) MnO 2

(f) Fe 2 O 3

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The following ionic compounds are found in common household products. Write the formulas for each compound:

(a) potassium phosphate

(b) copper(II) sulfate

(c) calcium chloride

(d) titanium dioxide

(e) ammonium nitrate

(f) sodium bisulfate (the common name for sodium hydrogen sulfate)

(a) K 3 PO 4 ; (b) CuSO 4 ; (c) CaCl 2 ; (d) TiO 2 ; (e) NH 4 NO 3 ; (f) NaHSO 4

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The following ionic compounds are found in common household products. Name each of the compounds:

(a) Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2

(b) FeSO 4

(c) CaCO 3

(d) MgO

(e) NaNO 2

(f) KI

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What are the IUPAC names of the following compounds?

(a) manganese dioxide

(b) mercurous chloride (Hg 2 Cl 2 )

(c) ferric nitrate [Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ]

(d) titanium tetrachloride

(e) cupric bromide (CuBr 2 )

(a) manganese(IV) oxide; (b) mercury(I) chloride; (c) iron(III) nitrate; (d) titanium(IV) chloride; (e) copper(II) bromide

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Questions & Answers

given that 32.og sulphur contains 6.02×10 ^23 sulphur atoms how many atoms are there in 2.70g of aluminum. (A=27 s =32 )
Faith Reply
0.602*10^23=6.02×10^22
galina
Correct 👍... Its 1/10 of the mass number of Al which is 27
Karim
show the steps pls
Faith
correct
Collins
2.7g of Al - 6.02×10^23×2.7/27=0.602×10^23
galina
thanks
Faith
An aqueos solution of sodium hydroxide containing 2g in 200cm3 of solution has a concentration of (NaOH=40).
ABAPALE Reply
0.25 mol/dm3
David
0.25M
David
what is the meaning of the term an orbital?
syopi Reply
Orbital mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of an electron, electron pair, or (less commonly) nucleons. An orbital may also be called an atomic orbital or electron
Emmanuel
orbitals describe where an electron is likely to be found in an atom. Molecular orbitals perform the same role in molecules
Danny
why is alkynes more reactive than alkenes and alkanes
Bernice Reply
Alkenes and alkynes are generally more reactive than alkanes due to the electron density available in their pi bonds.
Danny
What are molecules
Ruth Reply
a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction
Danny
True
David
exactly
Harriet
true
lucy
were is ruth
Danny
Perfect
BISWAJIT
what is partial pressure law
Mokutmfon Reply
what is the structural formular for 2,3-dimethylbutane?
Mercy Reply
name the following compound (COOH)2
Mercy
CH3-CH(CH3)-CH(CH3)-CH3 this is 2,3-dimethylbutane
galina
(COOH)2 is oxalic acid
thiru
what is chemistry
Boris Reply
chemistry is the study of chemical reactions
lucy
Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances interact with energy.
Danny
chemistry is the study of matter, it's properties and composition
alexandra
am from Abuja and am in ss1
lucy
ss1 some one translate that for me we use grades in my country
Danny
maybe grade 9
lucy
okay am a chemistry and biology teacher from Zambia
Danny
should be grade 10 I think
alexandra
thats good Mr mwanza
Harriet
harriet you in grade what
Danny
GCE 12
Harriet
lusaka
Harriet
yes sir
lucy
me ss2
Richard
so are a final year student
kabu
What is the chemical formula for alcohol? is the chemical formula for alcohol?
Grant Reply
CH3CH2OH
Anupam
20 element are what element?
Eric Reply
What is Chemistry?
Esther Reply
studying about chemical reactions
thiru
You are right Vengada
Esther
studying about the rate of chemical is ?
thiru
Chemistry is the branch of sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reaction.
Jeremiah
chemical reaction is the process in which one or more chemical substances react with other chemical substance and converted one or more different substances.
Aisha
what is isotopy
RIDWAN Reply
Isotopy is one of two or more atoms having the same atomic numbers but different mass number.
Esther
is phenomenon where by atom of an element exhibit different mass number but have the same atomic number
lucy
same number of electrons and protons but different number of neutrons
galina
is an atom which has different number of protons but same number of electron such as carbon -12 and corbon 12
Collins
carbon-12 and carbon-13 have 6 electrons and 6 protons but carbon-12 has 6 neutrons and carbon-13 has 7 neutrons. Isotopes have different amount of neutrons
galina
Molar mass of Chlorine
Sakyi Reply
molar mass of chlorine 35.5
lucy
what is chemistry
Raphael Reply
Molar mass of Chlorine atom
Sakyi
chem is the study of structure, properties of matter and changes that matter undergo
Sheila
m.m of Cl is 35.5
Sheila
SYOPI chemistry is the study of changes in the study of matter
syopi
what is an acid
Harriet Reply
example, HCl, H2SO4, HNO3
galina
an acid is a substance that dissolves in water to give hydrogen oins as the only negatively charged ions
Sheila
Galina is correct those are some examples of acids , others are ethanedioic acid, ethanoic acid , methanoic acid ma ans above is tha definition of an acid
Sheila
An acid is a substance with particular chemical properties including litmus red, neutralizing alkalis and dissolving some metals.
Esther
Shelia is also right 💯💯
Esther
what is hydrocarbon?
Edgar
is a group of carbon atoms that is bonded with an alkyl group eg methyl butane
Sheila
A hydrocarbon is a compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms
martha
it means only carbon and hydrogen atoms are bonded..
Edgar
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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