<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Key concepts and summary

The equilibrium constant for an equilibrium involving the precipitation or dissolution of a slightly soluble ionic solid is called the solubility product, K sp , of the solid. When we have a heterogeneous equilibrium involving the slightly soluble solid M p X q and its ions M m+ and X n– :

M p X q ( s ) p M m+ ( a q ) + q X n− ( a q )

We write the solubility product expression as:

K sp = [M m+ ] p [X n− ] q

The solubility product of a slightly soluble electrolyte can be calculated from its solubility; conversely, its solubility can be calculated from its K sp , provided the only significant reaction that occurs when the solid dissolves is the formation of its ions.

A slightly soluble electrolyte begins to precipitate when the magnitude of the reaction quotient for the dissolution reaction exceeds the magnitude of the solubility product. Precipitation continues until the reaction quotient equals the solubility product.

A reagent can be added to a solution of ions to allow one ion to selectively precipitate out of solution. The common ion effect can also play a role in precipitation reactions. In the presence of an ion in common with one of the ions in the solution, Le Châtelier’s principle applies and more precipitate comes out of solution so that the molar solubility is reduced.

Key equations

  • M p X q ( s ) p M m+ ( a q ) + q X n− ( a q ) K sp = [ M m+ ] p [ X n− ] q

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Complete the changes in concentrations for each of the following reactions:

(a) AgI ( s ) Ag + ( a q ) + I ( a q ) x _____

(b) CaCO 3 ( s ) Ca 2+ ( a q ) + CO 3 2− ( a q ) ____ x

(c) Mg ( OH ) 2 ( s ) Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2 OH ( a q ) x _____

(d) Mg 3 ( PO 4 ) 2 ( s ) 3 Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2 PO 4 3− ( a q ) x _____

(e) Ca 5 ( PO 4 ) 3 OH ( s ) 5 Ca 2+ ( a q ) + 3 PO 4 3− ( a q ) + OH ( a q ) _____ _____ x

(a) AgI ( s ) Ag + ( a q ) + I ( a q ) x x _
(b) CaCO 3 ( s ) Ca 2+ ( a q ) + CO 3 2− ( a q ) x _ x
(c) Mg ( OH ) 2 ( s ) Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2 OH ( a q ) x 2 x _
(d) Mg 3 ( PO 4 ) 2 ( s ) 3Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2PO 4 3− ( a q ) 3 x _ 2 x
(e) Ca 5 ( PO 4 ) 3 OH ( s ) 5Ca 2+ ( a q ) + 3PO 4 3− ( a q ) + OH ( a q ) 5 x _ 3 x _ x

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Complete the changes in concentrations for each of the following reactions:

(a) BaSO 4 ( s ) Ba 2+ ( a q ) + SO 4 2− ( a q ) x _____

(b) Ag 2 SO 4 ( s ) 2 Ag + ( a q ) + SO 4 2− ( a q ) _____ x

(c) Al ( OH ) 3 ( s ) Al 3+ ( a q ) + 3 OH ( a q ) x _____

(d) Pb ( OH ) Cl ( s ) Pb 2+ ( a q ) + OH ( a q ) + Cl ( a q ) _____ x _____

(e) Ca 3 ( AsO 4 ) 2 ( s ) 3 Ca 2+ ( a q ) + 2 AsO 4 3− ( a q ) 3 x _____

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

How do the concentrations of Ag + and CrO 4 2− in a saturated solution above 1.0 g of solid Ag 2 CrO 4 change when 100 g of solid Ag 2 CrO 4 is added to the system? Explain.

There is no change. A solid has an activity of 1 whether there is a little or a lot.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

How do the concentrations of Pb 2+ and S 2– change when K 2 S is added to a saturated solution of PbS?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

What additional information do we need to answer the following question: How is the equilibrium of solid silver bromide with a saturated solution of its ions affected when the temperature is raised?

The solubility of silver bromide at the new temperature must be known. Normally the solubility increases and some of the solid silver bromide will dissolve.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Which of the following slightly soluble compounds has a solubility greater than that calculated from its solubility product because of hydrolysis of the anion present: CoSO 3 , CuI, PbCO 3 , PbCl 2 , Tl 2 S, KClO 4 ?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

what is lattice energy
Getrude Reply
why is CO a neutral oxide and CO2 an acidic oxide
Emmanuel Reply
Because when CO2 dissolves in water forming a weak acid. CO does not dissolve in water as it has strong triple bond.
Abdelkarim
What is acid
Progress Reply
which donate H+ or accept lone pair of electron
Kajal
kinetic theory of matter and gas law
Victoria Reply
hi
Victoria
pls explain
Victoria
what is clay
Thankgod Reply
material containing clay minerals. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours
Abdelkarim
due iron oxide. The four types of clay are Earthenware clay, Stoneware clay, Ball clay, and Porcelain. All of them can be used to make pottery, but the end result would differ a lot thanks to their different textures, colors, and flexibilities.
Abdelkarim
And do you know that god has created human from clay (وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلࣲ مِّنۡ حَمَإࣲ مَّسۡنُونࣲ) [سورة الحجر 26] And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. You can install Quran from paly store for free with translations.
Abdelkarim
darw a periodic table
Hazard Reply
draw a periodic table
Hazard
You will arrange the elements into row and coloumns according to increasing proton number. You may want to use symbols or their names. Hydrogen, Helium, etc. God has created all these elements from nothing, in Islam we know God is the creator.
Abdelkarim
why are you drawing a periodic table? why not just print one from the internet and use as a reference
Jakhari
Great thought
Bright
how are you?
Abel Reply
alright , how about you
Marina
am fine
Agbo
your name is Agbo?
Marina
my name is amel
Farid
l use the email of my husband
Farid
Define organic chemistry
Edward Reply
It is the chemistry concerning molecules that have Carbon skeletons and hydrogen atoms. We find organic molecules like in plants, living derivatives, etc.
Abdelkarim
what's matter
Joshua Reply
Anything that can be to cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1
Abdelkarim
Anything that has mass and can reflect or absorb waves. GOD created everything from nothing only he can destroy it as prooved.
Abdelkarim
Suppose you have a cube of side 10 cm. Then you start cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1 0= 10 (1/2)^n-1 0= (1/2) ^ n-1 Log0= (n-1) Log(1/2) - infinity =( n-1)
Abdelkarim
matter is anything that has mass,volume and can occupy space
Getrude
what is electrolysis
Rabi Reply
good equation
Aliyu
differenciate between fat and oil
Mustapha Reply
what is the meaning of coordinate bond
Asmaa Reply
It is the alternative for dative which is a covalent bond but both electrons of the pair are from shared from the same (one) atom.
Abdelkarim
can someone please tell me what does an Entropy means
Afiwape Reply
what is chemistry?
Archie Reply
what is chemistry
Afiwape
chemistry is a brach of science which deal with the study of the nature, composition structure and with the force that hold the structure together and the change matter will undergo undedifferent conditions
Afiwape
And god has created everything from nothing
Abdelkarim
forms of biotechnology
Ocheme Reply
Practice Key Terms 4

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask