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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Write chemical equations and equilibrium expressions representing solubility equilibria
  • Carry out equilibrium computations involving solubility, equilibrium expressions, and solute concentrations

The preservation of medical laboratory blood samples, mining of sea water for magnesium, formulation of over-the-counter medicines such as Milk of Magnesia and antacids, and treating the presence of hard water in your home’s water supply are just a few of the many tasks that involve controlling the equilibrium between a slightly soluble ionic solid and an aqueous solution of its ions.

In some cases, we want to prevent dissolution from occurring. Tooth decay, for example, occurs when the calcium hydroxylapatite, which has the formula Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH), in our teeth dissolves. The dissolution process is aided when bacteria in our mouths feast on the sugars in our diets to produce lactic acid, which reacts with the hydroxide ions in the calcium hydroxylapatite. Preventing the dissolution prevents the decay. On the other hand, sometimes we want a substance to dissolve. We want the calcium carbonate in a chewable antacid to dissolve because the CO 3 2− ions produced in this process help soothe an upset stomach.

In this section, we will find out how we can control the dissolution of a slightly soluble ionic solid by the application of Le Châtelier’s principle. We will also learn how to use the equilibrium constant of the reaction to determine the concentration of ions present in a solution.

The solubility product constant

Silver chloride is what’s known as a sparingly soluble ionic solid ( [link] ). Recall from the solubility rules in an earlier chapter that halides of Ag + are not normally soluble. However, when we add an excess of solid AgCl to water, it dissolves to a small extent and produces a mixture consisting of a very dilute solution of Ag + and Cl ions in equilibrium with undissolved silver chloride:

AgCl ( s ) precipitation dissolution Ag + ( a q ) + Cl ( a q )

This equilibrium, like other equilibria, is dynamic; some of the solid AgCl continues to dissolve, but at the same time, Ag + and Cl ions in the solution combine to produce an equal amount of the solid. At equilibrium, the opposing processes have equal rates.

Two beakers are shown with a bidirectional arrow between them. Both beakers are just over half filled with a clear, colorless liquid. The beaker on the left shows a cubic structure composed of alternating green and slightly larger grey spheres. Evenly distributed in the region outside, 11 space filling models are shown. These are each composed of a central red sphere with two smaller white spheres attached in a bent arrangement. In the beaker on the right, the green and grey spheres are no longer connected in a cubic structure. Nine green spheres, 10 grey spheres, and 11 red and white molecules are evenly mixed and distributed throughout the liquid in the beaker.
Silver chloride is a sparingly soluble ionic solid. When it is added to water, it dissolves slightly and produces a mixture consisting of a very dilute solution of Ag + and Cl ions in equilibrium with undissolved silver chloride.

The equilibrium constant for the equilibrium between a slightly soluble ionic solid and a solution of its ions is called the solubility product ( K sp )    of the solid. Recall from the chapter on solutions and colloids that we use an ion’s concentration as an approximation of its activity in a dilute solution. For silver chloride, at equilibrium:

AgCl ( s ) Ag + ( a q ) + Cl ( a q ) K sp = [ Ag + ( a q ) ] [ Cl ( a q ) ]

When looking at dissolution reactions such as this, the solid is listed as a reactant, whereas the ions are listed as products. The solubility product constant, as with every equilibrium constant expression, is written as the product of the concentrations of each of the ions, raised to the power of their stoichiometric coefficients. Here, the solubility product constant is equal to Ag + and Cl when a solution of silver chloride is in equilibrium with undissolved AgCl. There is no denominator representing the reactants in this equilibrium expression since the reactant is a pure solid; therefore [AgCl] does not appear in the expression for K sp .

Questions & Answers

Define chemical formula
Kevin Reply
Bohr model of hydrogen atom
Muhammad Reply
what is important of this model
nagesh
what is the main reaction between sodium and chlorine
Akeem Reply
when a sodium atom is transferred an electron to a chloride atom forming a sodium cation and a chlorde anoin both ions are compltely valence shells and a energetically more stable this reaction is extremely more exothermic producing a bright yellow light abd a great deal of heat energy
sani
well what kind of sodium
coland
sodium chloride
coland
Tyropanoic acid and its salt sodium tyropanoate are radiocontrast agents used in cholecystography (X-ray diagnosis of gallstones). Trade names include Bilopaque, Lumopaque, Tyropaque, and Bilopac. The molecule contains three heavy iodine atoms which obstruct X-rays in the same way as the calcium in
coland
Sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) is a commonly used synonym for 7-ethyl-2-methyl-4-undecanyl sulfate sodium salt which is anionic surfactant that is the active component of the sclerosant drug Sotradecol. It is commonly used in the treatment of varicose and spider veins of the leg, during the procedu
coland
Sodium stibogluconate, sold under the brand name Pentostam among others, is a medication used to treat leishmaniasis. This includes leishmaniasis of the cutaneous, visceral, and mucosal types. Some combination of miltefosine, paramycin and liposomal amphotericin B; however, may be recommended due to
coland
Sodium picosulfate (INN, also known as sodium picosulphate) is a Contact stimulant laxative used as a treatment for constipation or to prepare the large bowel before colonoscopy or surgery. It is sold under the trade names Sodipic Picofast, Laxoberal, Laxoberon, Purg-Odan, Picolax, Guttalax, Namilax
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Ipodate sodium (sodium iopodate) is an iodine-containing radiopaque contrast media used for X-rays. The drug is given orally and the resulting contrast allows for easy resolution of the bile duct and gall bladder. Other uses Although not FDA approved, ipodate sodium has been used to treat Graves'
coland
Sodium ferric gluconate complex (brand name ferrlecit by Sanofi), is an intravenously administered iron product indicated in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. It is frequently used in patients undergoing hemodialysis, those undergoing erythropoietin therapy, and/or patients who have chronic k
coland
Dehydrocholic acid is a synthetic bile acid, manufactured by the oxidation of cholic acid. It acts as a hydrocholeretic, increasing bile output to clear increased bile acid load.
coland
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is an aminopolycarboxylic acid and a colourless, water-soluble solid. Its conjugate base is ethylenediaminetetraacetate. It is widely used to dissolve limescale. Its usefulness arises because of its role as a hexadentate ("s
coland
Sodium aurothiomalate (INN, known in the United States as gold sodium thiomalate) is a gold compound that is used for its immunosuppressive anti-rheumatic effects. Along with an orally-administered gold salt, auranofin, it is one of only two gold compounds currently employed in modern medicine. Med
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Sodium ascorbate is one of a number of mineral salts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The molecular formula of this chemical compound is C6H7NaO6. As the sodium salt of ascorbic acid, it is known as a mineral ascorbate. It has not been demonstrated to be more bioavailable than any other form of vitamin
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Diatrizoic acid (or its anionic form, diatrizoate), also known as amidotrizoic acid, or 3,5-diacetamido-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid, is a radiocontrast agent containing iodine. Trade names include Hypaque, Gastrografin, Iothalmate and Urografin, the latter being a combination of the sodium and meglum
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Sodium acetrizoate (rINN, trade names Urokon, Triurol and Salpix), the sodium salt of acetrizoic acid, is a high-osmolality, water-soluble, iodine-based radiographic contrast medium no longer in clinical use. Acetrizoate was developed by V.H. Wallingford of Mallinckrodt, and introduced in 1950; it
coland
i think some was missed
coland
what chlorine L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Alpha-GPC rapidly delive
coland
Choline Theophyllinate , also known as oxtriphylline, is a cough medicine derived from xanthine that acts as a bronchodilator to open up airways in the lung. Chemically, it is a salt of choline and Theophylline. It classifies as an expectorant. The drug is available under the brand names Choledyl an
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Choline (/ˈkoʊlin/) is a water-soluble vitamin. It is usually grouped within the B-complex vitamins. The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation (X− on the right denotes an undefined counteranion). The cation appears in the
coland
thanks
sani
please what is redox reaction
BABARINDE
hydrogen reacting with water
Iyenge Reply
what is matter
Godgift Reply
apart from those device there is there any device
Eke Reply
how many elements do we have
ARUOTURE Reply
Modern Electronic Theory
Levi Reply
a new way or an improvement in modern electrical products.
Andrew
find the volume of oxygen produced from the electrolysis of acidified water of a current of a 2A was passed through the electrolysis of acidified water for 2 hours
Ngwu Reply
14400J
Ese
wrong question, go through it. oxygen cannot be produced.
Andrew
A group of atoms that are connected by chemical bounds
Valerie Reply
molecule
NARCOS_
the atoms are found in the shell, it is called atomic bond.
Andrew
what is molecules
Kelly Reply
what atoms
Simon
Moecules are groups of atoms
Adewole
atom is the smallest part of an element or matter that indivisible
Ese
What is collision theory
Isah Reply
hello guys am new here
Andrew Reply
what is the si unit for energy
enow Reply
joules
udoh
what is Charles law
Ogbu
how do mass of solvent be gram or kilogram ?
Yussuf Reply
by converting
Andrew
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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