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This figure shows four photos each labeled, “a,” “b,” “c,” and, “d.” Each photo shows a beaker with ice and a digital thermometer. The first photo shows ice cubes in the beaker, and the thermometer reads negative 12.0 degrees C. The second photo shows slightly melted ice, and the thermometer reads 0.0 degrees C. The third photo shows more water than ice in the beaker. The thermometer reads 0.0 degrees C. The fourth photo shows the ice completely melted, and the thermometer reads 22.2 degrees C.
(a) This beaker of ice has a temperature of −12.0 °C. (b) After 10 minutes the ice has absorbed enough heat from the air to warm to 0 °C. A small amount has melted. (c) Thirty minutes later, the ice has absorbed more heat, but its temperature is still 0 °C. The ice melts without changing its temperature. (d) Only after all the ice has melted does the heat absorbed cause the temperature to increase to 22.2 °C. (credit: modification of work by Mark Ott)

If we stop heating during melting and place the mixture of solid and liquid in a perfectly insulated container so no heat can enter or escape, the solid and liquid phases remain in equilibrium. This is almost the situation with a mixture of ice and water in a very good thermos bottle; almost no heat gets in or out, and the mixture of solid ice and liquid water remains for hours. In a mixture of solid and liquid at equilibrium, the reciprocal processes of melting and freezing    occur at equal rates, and the quantities of solid and liquid therefore remain constant. The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a given substance are in equilibrium is called the melting point    of the solid or the freezing point    of the liquid. Use of one term or the other is normally dictated by the direction of the phase transition being considered, for example, solid to liquid (melting) or liquid to solid (freezing).

The enthalpy of fusion and the melting point of a crystalline solid depend on the strength of the attractive forces between the units present in the crystal. Molecules with weak attractive forces form crystals with low melting points. Crystals consisting of particles with stronger attractive forces melt at higher temperatures.

The amount of heat required to change one mole of a substance from the solid state to the liquid state is the enthalpy of fusion, ΔH fus of the substance. The enthalpy of fusion of ice is 6.0 kJ/mol at 0 °C. Fusion (melting) is an endothermic process:

H 2 O ( s ) H 2 O( l ) Δ H fus = 6.01 kJ/mol

The reciprocal process, freezing, is an exothermic process whose enthalpy change is −6.0 kJ/mol at 0 °C:

H 2 O ( l ) H 2 O( s ) Δ H frz = −Δ H fus = −6.01 kJ/mol

Sublimation and deposition

Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation    . At room temperature and standard pressure, a piece of dry ice (solid CO 2 ) sublimes, appearing to gradually disappear without ever forming any liquid. Snow and ice sublime at temperatures below the melting point of water, a slow process that may be accelerated by winds and the reduced atmospheric pressures at high altitudes. When solid iodine is warmed, the solid sublimes and a vivid purple vapor forms ( [link] ). The reverse of sublimation is called deposition    , a process in which gaseous substances condense directly into the solid state, bypassing the liquid state. The formation of frost is an example of deposition.

This figure shows a test tube. In the bottom is a dark substance which breaks up into a purple gas at the top.
Sublimation of solid iodine in the bottom of the tube produces a purple gas that subsequently deposits as solid iodine on the colder part of the tube above. (credit: modification of work by Mark Ott)

Questions & Answers

What is rightful definition of element
angela Reply
an element is the group of (vertical columns) of the periodic table exhibit similar chemical behaviour.
Barnabas
okay
angela
is alkanes a saturated hydrocarbon?
Faith Reply
yup
Oladayo
it's saturated cos it has single bonds
Oladayo
yh....because they don't undergo additional reactions which hydrogen and other atoms can add across the carbon-carbon or triple bond
patience
and me...I'm I wrong?
patience
how does metal looses electron
Sammy Reply
By oxidation and reduction
hamidat
by oxidation loss
Official
An acid is a proton donor.
Eric Reply
what is an acid
Amara Reply
an acid is a substance when dissolved in water produces hydrogen ion or hydroxonium ion
hamidat
good
Mudassir
thanks
hamidat
is a substance which dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions as the only positively charged ions
Kwagala
what is ionic bonding
Kylian Reply
It involves the transferring of electron from a metal to a non mental
hamidat
that's right
Edward
bonding between a metal and a non metal
miriam
calculate the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution when pH=5
Adamu Reply
answer pls
Adamu
no ideas
hamidat
What is thermodynamics
prince Reply
what is the meaning this word twentieth
dhu
Is the branch of physics that deal with heat and temperature and their relation to work, energy and properties of matter
Edward
There are no topics on hydrocarbons
Zina Reply
I don't understand
hamidat
they are there please check under organic chemistry in the contents.
Kwagala
its not making sense to me I still don't understand
megan Reply
How and why
Betrice
yes
megan
we need diagram for easy going and understand
serah
How can we easily differentiate between the 5 gas laws
Favour Reply
first amd foremist me i only know 3 gas laws, so please list them here
Kwagala
the gas laws i know include pressure law boyles law charles law i differentiate these with this formular big take classy pork pigs. viral i read thus as 1 big classy pigs take pork viral big.....take means in boyles law,temp is constant clasy.....prk mns in chrls lw, press cons
Kwagala
classy.....pork means in charles law pressure is constant pigs.....viral means, in pressure law volume is kept constsng ,the rest is the same boyles states that vol of a gas is inversely prop to volume keeping temp constant charles law, state vol of a gas is directly prop to temp keepn pressure cns
Kwagala
how many carbon is present in alkene
Alase Reply
it's the carbon to carbon being double bonded to each other that makes it an alkene, not the amount of carbon itself. ex: C=C, C=C=C. both are alkenes.
Phill
I need more light on alkene
chidera
an alkene is a hydrocarbon, you can find this under the sub topic of organic chemistry in this textbook, check it out please,but before you know about alkenes you should first know about alkanes, alkanes are saturated and dnt easily react while alkenes have double bonds and can react .
Kwagala
other usefullness of hydrogen apart from this, it is colourless, odourless and tasteless
Bukunmi Reply
it is neutral to litmus paper, it is insoluble in water
hamidat
the enthalpy of a system
Nasirat Reply
changing in heat of a system which can be lost or gained
Yussuf
is the energy change that occurs when molar quantities of reactants as stated in a chemical equation completely react
Kwagala
enthalpy of reaction is the energy change that occurs when molar quantities of reactants as stated in a chemical equation completely react
Kwagala
what is the unit of pressure
Tim Reply
what is pressure measured in?
Tim
Pascal
Stupid
millimeter mercury ,mmHg or ATM
hamidat
it is atm...in lower case not upper
Kwagala

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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