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Because each nuclide has a specific number of nucleons, a particular balance of repulsion and attraction, and its own degree of stability, the half-lives of radioactive nuclides vary widely. For example: the half-life of 83 209 Bi is 1.9 × 10 19 years; 94 239 Ra is 24,000 years; 86 222 Rn is 3.82 days; and element-111 (Rg for roentgenium) is 1.5 × 10 –3 seconds. The half-lives of a number of radioactive isotopes important to medicine are shown in [link] , and others are listed in Appendix M .

Half-lives of Radioactive Isotopes Important to Medicine
Type The “m” in Tc-99m stands for “metastable,” indicating that this is an unstable, high-energy state of Tc-99. Metastable isotopes emit γ radiation to rid themselves of excess energy and become (more) stable. Decay Mode Half-Life Uses
F-18 β + decay 110. minutes PET scans
Co-60 β decay, γ decay 5.27 years cancer treatment
Tc-99m γ decay 8.01 hours scans of brain, lung, heart, bone
I-131 β decay 8.02 days thyroid scans and treatment
Tl-201 electron capture 73 hours heart and arteries scans; cardiac stress tests

Radiometric dating

Several radioisotopes have half-lives and other properties that make them useful for purposes of “dating” the origin of objects such as archaeological artifacts, formerly living organisms, or geological formations. This process is radiometric dating    and has been responsible for many breakthrough scientific discoveries about the geological history of the earth, the evolution of life, and the history of human civilization. We will explore some of the most common types of radioactive dating and how the particular isotopes work for each type.

Radioactive dating using carbon-14

The radioactivity of carbon-14 provides a method for dating objects that were a part of a living organism. This method of radiometric dating, which is also called radiocarbon dating    or carbon-14 dating, is accurate for dating carbon-containing substances that are up to about 30,000 years old, and can provide reasonably accurate dates up to a maximum of about 50,000 years old.

Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes: 6 12 C , which constitutes about 99% of the carbon on earth; 6 13 C , about 1% of the total; and trace amounts of 6 14 C . Carbon-14 forms in the upper atmosphere by the reaction of nitrogen atoms with neutrons from cosmic rays in space:

7 14 N + 0 1 n 6 14 C + 1 1 H

All isotopes of carbon react with oxygen to produce CO 2 molecules. The ratio of 6 14 C O 2 to 6 12 C O 2 depends on the ratio of 6 14 C O to 6 12 C O in the atmosphere. The natural abundance of 6 14 C O in the atmosphere is approximately 1 part per trillion; until recently, this has generally been constant over time, as seen is gas samples found trapped in ice. The incorporation of 6 14 C 6 14 C O 2 and 6 12 C O 2 into plants is a regular part of the photosynthesis process, which means that the 6 14 C : 6 12 C ratio found in a living plant is the same as the 6 14 C : 6 12 C ratio in the atmosphere. But when the plant dies, it no longer traps carbon through photosynthesis. Because 6 12 C is a stable isotope and does not undergo radioactive decay, its concentration in the plant does not change. However, carbon-14 decays by β emission with a half-life of 5730 years:

Questions & Answers

what is zero gravity
Blessing Reply
every object is that zero gravity
Probably when an object is in space and there are no nearby masses that pull her, and exert gravity
Alright. .good job
And all majesty to God, (وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِی خَلَقَ ٱلَّیۡلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَۖ كُلࣱّ فِی فَلَكࣲ یَسۡبَحُونَ) [سورة الأنبياء 33 And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming. General theory of relativity in Qur
what is lattice energy
Getrude Reply
why is CO a neutral oxide and CO2 an acidic oxide
Emmanuel Reply
Because when CO2 dissolves in water forming a weak acid. CO does not dissolve in water as it has strong triple bond.
What is acid
Progress Reply
which donate H+ or accept lone pair of electron
kinetic theory of matter and gas law
Victoria Reply
pls explain
what is clay
Thankgod Reply
material containing clay minerals. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours
due iron oxide. The four types of clay are Earthenware clay, Stoneware clay, Ball clay, and Porcelain. All of them can be used to make pottery, but the end result would differ a lot thanks to their different textures, colors, and flexibilities.
And do you know that god has created human from clay (وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلࣲ مِّنۡ حَمَإࣲ مَّسۡنُونࣲ) [سورة الحجر 26] And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. You can install Quran from paly store for free with translations.
darw a periodic table
Hazard Reply
draw a periodic table
You will arrange the elements into row and coloumns according to increasing proton number. You may want to use symbols or their names. Hydrogen, Helium, etc. God has created all these elements from nothing, in Islam we know God is the creator.
why are you drawing a periodic table? why not just print one from the internet and use as a reference
Great thought
how are you?
Abel Reply
alright , how about you
am fine
your name is Agbo?
my name is amel
l use the email of my husband
Define organic chemistry
Edward Reply
It is the chemistry concerning molecules that have Carbon skeletons and hydrogen atoms. We find organic molecules like in plants, living derivatives, etc.
what's matter
Joshua Reply
Anything that can be to cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1
Anything that has mass and can reflect or absorb waves. GOD created everything from nothing only he can destroy it as prooved.
Suppose you have a cube of side 10 cm. Then you start cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1 0= 10 (1/2)^n-1 0= (1/2) ^ n-1 Log0= (n-1) Log(1/2) - infinity =( n-1)
matter is anything that has mass,volume and can occupy space
what is electrolysis
Rabi Reply
good equation
differenciate between fat and oil
Mustapha Reply
what is the meaning of coordinate bond
Asmaa Reply
It is the alternative for dative which is a covalent bond but both electrons of the pair are from shared from the same (one) atom.
can someone please tell me what does an Entropy means
Afiwape Reply
what is chemistry?
Archie Reply
what is chemistry
chemistry is a brach of science which deal with the study of the nature, composition structure and with the force that hold the structure together and the change matter will undergo undedifferent conditions
And god has created everything from nothing

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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