# 18.11 Occurrence, preparation, and properties of halogens

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Describe the preparation, properties, and uses of halogens
• Describe the properties, preparation, and uses of halogen compounds

The elements in group 17 are the halogens. These are the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. These elements are too reactive to occur freely in nature, but their compounds are widely distributed. Chlorides are the most abundant; although fluorides, bromides, and iodides are less common, they are reasonably available. In this section, we will examine the occurrence, preparation, and properties of halogens. Next, we will examine halogen compounds with the representative metals followed by an examination of the interhalogens. This section will conclude with some applications of halogens.

## Occurrence and preparation

All of the halogens occur in seawater as halide ions. The concentration of the chloride ion is 0.54 M ; that of the other halides is less than 10 –4 M . Fluoride also occurs in minerals such as CaF 2 , Ca(PO 4 ) 3 F, and Na 3 AlF 6 . Chloride also occurs in the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea, and in extensive salt beds that contain NaCl, KCl, or MgCl 2 . Part of the chlorine in your body is present as hydrochloric acid, which is a component of stomach acid. Bromine compounds occur in the Dead Sea and underground brines. Iodine compounds are found in small quantities in Chile saltpeter, underground brines, and sea kelp. Iodine is essential to the function of the thyroid gland.

The best sources of halogens (except iodine) are halide salts. It is possible to oxidize the halide ions to free diatomic halogen molecules by various methods, depending on the ease of oxidation of the halide ion. Fluoride is the most difficult to oxidize, whereas iodide is the easiest.

The major method for preparing fluorine is electrolytic oxidation. The most common electrolysis procedure is to use a molten mixture of potassium hydrogen fluoride, KHF 2 , and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. Electrolysis causes HF to decompose, forming fluorine gas at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. It is necessary to keep the two gases separated to prevent their explosive recombination to reform hydrogen fluoride.

Most commercial chlorine comes from the electrolysis of the chloride ion in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride; this is the chlor-alkali process discussed previously. Chlorine is also a product of the electrolytic production of metals such as sodium, calcium, and magnesium from their fused chlorides. It is also possible to prepare chlorine by the chemical oxidation of the chloride ion in acid solution with strong oxidizing agents such as manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) or sodium dichromate (Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 ). The reaction with manganese dioxide is:

${\text{MnO}}_{2}\left(s\right)+2{\text{Cl}}^{\text{−}}\left(aq\right)+4{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{\text{+}}\left(aq\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Mn}}^{2+}\left(aq\right)+{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right)+6{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)$

The commercial preparation of bromine involves the oxidation of bromide ion by chlorine:

$2{\text{Br}}^{\text{−}}\left(aq\right)+{\text{Cl}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{Br}}_{2}\left(l\right)+2{\text{Cl}}^{\text{−}}\left(aq\right)$

Chlorine is a stronger oxidizing agent than bromine. This method is important for the production of essentially all domestic bromine.

#### Questions & Answers

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aromaticity is a conjugated pi system specific to organic rings like benzene, which have an odd number of electron pairs within the system that allows for exceptional molecular stability
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sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
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is simply means a condensed water vapour
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TYPES OF COVALENT BOND-POLAR BOND-NON POLAR BOND-DOUBLE BOND-TRIPPLE BOND. There are three types of covalent bond depending upon the number of shared electron pairs. A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of one electron pair between two atoms is called a "Single Covalent bond.
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Atom is indivisible particles which take place in chemical reactions
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Zn(OH-)2
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coordination number is the number of atoms or ions immediately surrounding a central atom in a complex or crystal
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Antoine Lavoisier. Father of modern chemistry
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Lavoisier
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geometric isomerism are molecules that are locked into their spatial position with respect to one another due to a double Bond or ring structure
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