<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Nonmetal oxygen compounds

Most nonmetals react with oxygen to form nonmetal oxides. Depending on the available oxidation states for the element, a variety of oxides might form. Fluorine will combine with oxygen to form fluorides such as OF 2 , where the oxygen has a 2+-oxidation state.

Sulfur oxygen compounds

The two common oxides of sulfur are sulfur dioxide, SO 2 , and sulfur trioxide, SO 3 . The odor of burning sulfur comes from sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide, shown in [link] , occurs in volcanic gases and in the atmosphere near industrial plants that burn fuel containing sulfur compounds.

A ball-and-stick model shows a yellow atom labeled, “S,” bonded on either side to a red atom labeled, “O.” A pair of Lewis structures are shown connected by a double-headed arrow. The left Lewis structure shows a sulfur atom with one lone pair of electrons double bonded on the left to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons and single bonded on the right to an oxygen atom with three lone pairs of electrons. The right Lewis structure is a mirror image of the structure on the left.
This image shows the molecular structure (left) and resonance forms (right) of sulfur dioxide.

Commercial production of sulfur dioxide is from either burning sulfur or roasting sulfide ores such as ZnS, FeS 2 , and Cu 2 S in air. (Roasting, which forms the metal oxide, is the first step in the separation of many metals from their ores.) A convenient method for preparing sulfur dioxide in the laboratory is by the action of a strong acid on either sulfite salts containing the SO 3 2− ion or hydrogen sulfite salts containing HSO 3 . Sulfurous acid, H 2 SO 3 , forms first, but quickly decomposes into sulfur dioxide and water. Sulfur dioxide also forms when many reducing agents react with hot, concentrated sulfuric acid. Sulfur trioxide forms slowly when heating sulfur dioxide and oxygen together, and the reaction is exothermic:

2 SO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) 2 SO 3 ( g ) Δ H ° = −197.8 kJ

Sulfur dioxide is a gas at room temperature, and the SO 2 molecule is bent. Sulfur trioxide melts at 17 °C and boils at 43 °C. In the vapor state, its molecules are single SO 3 units (shown in [link] ), but in the solid state, SO 3 exists in several polymeric forms.

A ball-and-stick model shows a yellow atom labeled, “S,” bonded to three red atoms labeled, “O.” Three Lewis structures are shown connected by double-headed arrows. The left Lewis structure shows a sulfur atom single bonded on the lower left and right to oxygen atoms with three lone pairs of electrons each. The sulfur atom is also double bonded above to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The middle and right Lewis structures are the same as the left, but show the double bonded oxygen in the lower left and lower right positions, respectively.
This image shows the structure (top) of sulfur trioxide in the gas phase and its resonance forms (bottom).

The sulfur oxides react as Lewis acids with many oxides and hydroxides in Lewis acid-base reactions, with the formation of sulfites or hydrogen sulfites , and sulfates or hydrogen sulfates , respectively.

Halogen oxygen compounds

The halogens do not react directly with oxygen, but it is possible to prepare binary oxygen-halogen compounds by the reactions of the halogens with oxygen-containing compounds. Oxygen compounds with chlorine, bromine, and iodine are oxides because oxygen is the more electronegative element in these compounds. On the other hand, fluorine compounds with oxygen are fluorides because fluorine is the more electronegative element.

As a class, the oxides are extremely reactive and unstable, and their chemistry has little practical importance. Dichlorine oxide, formally called dichlorine monoxide, and chlorine dioxide, both shown in [link] , are the only commercially important compounds. They are important as bleaching agents (for use with pulp and flour) and for water treatment.

Two space filling models are shown and labeled, “a,” and “b.” Model a shows a red atom labeled, “O,” bonded to two green atoms labeled, “C l,” in a v-shape. Model b shows a green atom labeled, “C l,” bonded to two red atoms labeled, “O,” in a v-shape.
This image shows the structures of the (a) Cl 2 O and (b) ClO 2 molecules.

Nonmetal oxyacids and their salts

Nonmetal oxides form acids when allowed to react with water; these are acid anhydrides. The resulting oxyanions can form salts with various metal ions.

Questions & Answers

what is molecule
Olom Reply
What is the generic name for the compound
Orisanmi Reply
what is the formular for methane
Tamaranimiweremi Reply
CH4 , it is the simplest alkane
Abdelkarim
what is the formula for alkaline
Olom
hi
Yusuf
I wish to learn to more of chemistry, can someone please teach me.
Yusuf
what is zero gravity
Blessing Reply
every object is that zero gravity
Rabiu
Probably when an object is in space and there are no nearby masses that pull her, and exert gravity
Abdelkarim
Alright. .good job
Rabiu
And all majesty to God, (وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِی خَلَقَ ٱلَّیۡلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَۖ كُلࣱّ فِی فَلَكࣲ یَسۡبَحُونَ) [سورة الأنبياء 33 And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming. General theory of relativity in Qur
Abdelkarim
what is molecule?
Olom
what is lattice energy
Getrude Reply
why is CO a neutral oxide and CO2 an acidic oxide
Emmanuel Reply
Because when CO2 dissolves in water forming a weak acid. CO does not dissolve in water as it has strong triple bond.
Abdelkarim
What is acid
Progress Reply
which donate H+ or accept lone pair of electron
Kajal
kinetic theory of matter and gas law
Victoria Reply
hi
Victoria
pls explain
Victoria
what is clay
Thankgod Reply
material containing clay minerals. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours
Abdelkarim
due iron oxide. The four types of clay are Earthenware clay, Stoneware clay, Ball clay, and Porcelain. All of them can be used to make pottery, but the end result would differ a lot thanks to their different textures, colors, and flexibilities.
Abdelkarim
And do you know that god has created human from clay (وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلࣲ مِّنۡ حَمَإࣲ مَّسۡنُونࣲ) [سورة الحجر 26] And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. You can install Quran from paly store for free with translations.
Abdelkarim
darw a periodic table
Hazard Reply
draw a periodic table
Hazard
You will arrange the elements into row and coloumns according to increasing proton number. You may want to use symbols or their names. Hydrogen, Helium, etc. God has created all these elements from nothing, in Islam we know God is the creator.
Abdelkarim
why are you drawing a periodic table? why not just print one from the internet and use as a reference
Jakhari
Great thought
Bright
how are you?
Abel Reply
alright , how about you
Marina
am fine
Agbo
your name is Agbo?
Marina
my name is amel
Farid
l use the email of my husband
Farid
Define organic chemistry
Edward Reply
It is the chemistry concerning molecules that have Carbon skeletons and hydrogen atoms. We find organic molecules like in plants, living derivatives, etc.
Abdelkarim
what's matter
Joshua Reply
Anything that can be to cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1
Abdelkarim
Anything that has mass and can reflect or absorb waves. GOD created everything from nothing only he can destroy it as prooved.
Abdelkarim
Suppose you have a cube of side 10 cm. Then you start cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1 0= 10 (1/2)^n-1 0= (1/2) ^ n-1 Log0= (n-1) Log(1/2) - infinity =( n-1)
Abdelkarim
matter is anything that has mass,volume and can occupy space
Getrude
what is electrolysis
Rabi Reply
good equation
Aliyu
differenciate between fat and oil
Mustapha Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask