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Nonmetal oxygen compounds

Most nonmetals react with oxygen to form nonmetal oxides. Depending on the available oxidation states for the element, a variety of oxides might form. Fluorine will combine with oxygen to form fluorides such as OF 2 , where the oxygen has a 2+-oxidation state.

Sulfur oxygen compounds

The two common oxides of sulfur are sulfur dioxide, SO 2 , and sulfur trioxide, SO 3 . The odor of burning sulfur comes from sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide, shown in [link] , occurs in volcanic gases and in the atmosphere near industrial plants that burn fuel containing sulfur compounds.

A ball-and-stick model shows a yellow atom labeled, “S,” bonded on either side to a red atom labeled, “O.” A pair of Lewis structures are shown connected by a double-headed arrow. The left Lewis structure shows a sulfur atom with one lone pair of electrons double bonded on the left to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons and single bonded on the right to an oxygen atom with three lone pairs of electrons. The right Lewis structure is a mirror image of the structure on the left.
This image shows the molecular structure (left) and resonance forms (right) of sulfur dioxide.

Commercial production of sulfur dioxide is from either burning sulfur or roasting sulfide ores such as ZnS, FeS 2 , and Cu 2 S in air. (Roasting, which forms the metal oxide, is the first step in the separation of many metals from their ores.) A convenient method for preparing sulfur dioxide in the laboratory is by the action of a strong acid on either sulfite salts containing the SO 3 2− ion or hydrogen sulfite salts containing HSO 3 . Sulfurous acid, H 2 SO 3 , forms first, but quickly decomposes into sulfur dioxide and water. Sulfur dioxide also forms when many reducing agents react with hot, concentrated sulfuric acid. Sulfur trioxide forms slowly when heating sulfur dioxide and oxygen together, and the reaction is exothermic:

2 SO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) 2 SO 3 ( g ) Δ H ° = −197.8 kJ

Sulfur dioxide is a gas at room temperature, and the SO 2 molecule is bent. Sulfur trioxide melts at 17 °C and boils at 43 °C. In the vapor state, its molecules are single SO 3 units (shown in [link] ), but in the solid state, SO 3 exists in several polymeric forms.

A ball-and-stick model shows a yellow atom labeled, “S,” bonded to three red atoms labeled, “O.” Three Lewis structures are shown connected by double-headed arrows. The left Lewis structure shows a sulfur atom single bonded on the lower left and right to oxygen atoms with three lone pairs of electrons each. The sulfur atom is also double bonded above to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The middle and right Lewis structures are the same as the left, but show the double bonded oxygen in the lower left and lower right positions, respectively.
This image shows the structure (top) of sulfur trioxide in the gas phase and its resonance forms (bottom).

The sulfur oxides react as Lewis acids with many oxides and hydroxides in Lewis acid-base reactions, with the formation of sulfites or hydrogen sulfites , and sulfates or hydrogen sulfates , respectively.

Halogen oxygen compounds

The halogens do not react directly with oxygen, but it is possible to prepare binary oxygen-halogen compounds by the reactions of the halogens with oxygen-containing compounds. Oxygen compounds with chlorine, bromine, and iodine are oxides because oxygen is the more electronegative element in these compounds. On the other hand, fluorine compounds with oxygen are fluorides because fluorine is the more electronegative element.

As a class, the oxides are extremely reactive and unstable, and their chemistry has little practical importance. Dichlorine oxide, formally called dichlorine monoxide, and chlorine dioxide, both shown in [link] , are the only commercially important compounds. They are important as bleaching agents (for use with pulp and flour) and for water treatment.

Two space filling models are shown and labeled, “a,” and “b.” Model a shows a red atom labeled, “O,” bonded to two green atoms labeled, “C l,” in a v-shape. Model b shows a green atom labeled, “C l,” bonded to two red atoms labeled, “O,” in a v-shape.
This image shows the structures of the (a) Cl 2 O and (b) ClO 2 molecules.

Nonmetal oxyacids and their salts

Nonmetal oxides form acids when allowed to react with water; these are acid anhydrides. The resulting oxyanions can form salts with various metal ions.

Questions & Answers

An atom or group of atoms bearing anelectrical charge such as the sodium and chlorine atoms in a salt solution.
Adazion Reply
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Adazion
pls wat is periodic table
Prince
it's a list that shows the chemical element arranged according to their properties.
Adazion Reply
what is the chemical equation for ideal gas?
Adazion
what's Boyle and gas law?
Adazion
what's the meaning of this℃ in atomic table
Adazion
wat are ions
Sinyene
What is periodic table
SIRAJO Reply
Table that shows the elements in order of their atomic number
Uzair
organization of everything known in the universe in groups and periods. The structure is based on increasing mass and reaction properties.
Kate
How to mix chemical
Ukeh Reply
why the elements of group 7 are called Noble gases
isaac Reply
they aren't. group 8 is the noble gasses. they are snobs that don't mix with others like nobles, they have full valence shells so they don't form bonds with other elements easily. nobles don't mingle with the common folk...
Jessica
the group 7elements are not the noble gases . according to modern periodic group 18 are called noble gases elements because their valence shell are completely field so that they can't gain or loss electron so they are not able to involve in any chemical reaction.
Leena
Group 7 element they are not noble gases they halogen and halogen mean salt formers
SIRAJO
what is chemistry
Daniel Reply
chemistry is the branch of science which deal with the composition of matter
SHEDRACK
chemistry is an organized way to think about matter
Kate
Chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the composition, properties and uses of matter
Bamgbose
The branch of science concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances.
Aminu
discuss the orbital stracture of the following methane,ethane,ethylene,acetylene
khadija Reply
Why phosphurs in solid state have one atom but in gas state have four atoms
Shehab Reply
Are nuclear reactions both exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions or what?
Blessed Reply
to what volume must 8.32 NaOH be diluted to its analytical concentration 0.20 M
Sheriza Reply
weight in mg 1.76 mole of I
Sheriza
the types of hydrocarbons
Ohanaka Reply
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Emmanuel
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Jessica
aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
Osakue
stupid boy Emmanuel
Ohanaka
saturated and unsaturated
Leena
aromatic hydrocarbon aliphatic hydrocarbon
SIRAJO
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Adazion Reply
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SIRAJO
how can you determine the electronegativity of a compound or in molecules
Shalom Reply
when u move from left to right in a periodic table the negativity increases
reeza
Are you trying to say that the elctronegativity increases down the group and decreases across the period?
Ohanaka
yes and also increases across the period
reeza
for instance when you look at one group of elements in a periodic table electronegativity decreases when you go across the table electronegativity increases. hydrogen is more electronegative than sodium, potassium of that group. oxygen is more electronegative than carbon.
reeza
i hope we all know that organic compounds have carbon as their back bone
Madueke
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Adazion Reply
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Osakue
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hanna
what is the oxidation number of nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur
Osakue
5, -2 & -2
hanna
What is periodic table
SIRAJO
What is an atom?
Adazion Reply
is a smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist
Osakue
can I ask a question
Osakue
it is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units by any chemical reaction
Madueke
An atom is the smallest part of an element dat can take part in chemical reaction.
Idris
an atom is the smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction nd still retain it chemical properties
Precious
Is the smallest particles of an element that take part in chemical reaction without been change
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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