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Key concepts and summary

When reactions are carried out using less-than-stoichiometric quantities of reactants, the amount of product generated will be determined by the limiting reactant. The amount of product generated by a chemical reaction is its actual yield. This yield is often less than the amount of product predicted by the stoichiometry of the balanced chemical equation representing the reaction (its theoretical yield). The extent to which a reaction generates the theoretical amount of product is expressed as its percent yield.

Key equations

  • percent yield = ( actual yield theoretical yield ) × 100

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

The following quantities are placed in a container: 1.5 × 10 24 atoms of hydrogen, 1.0 mol of sulfur, and 88.0 g of diatomic oxygen.

(a) What is the total mass in grams for the collection of all three elements?

(b) What is the total number of moles of atoms for the three elements?

(c) If the mixture of the three elements formed a compound with molecules that contain two hydrogen atoms, one sulfur atom, and four oxygen atoms, which substance is consumed first?

(d) How many atoms of each remaining element would remain unreacted in the change described in (c)?

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What is the limiting reactant in a reaction that produces sodium chloride from 8 g of sodium and 8 g of diatomic chlorine?

The limiting reactant is Cl2.

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Which of the postulates of Dalton's atomic theory explains why we can calculate a theoretical yield for a chemical reaction?

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A student isolated 25 g of a compound following a procedure that would theoretically yield 81 g. What was his percent yield?

Percent yield = 31%

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A sample of 0.53 g of carbon dioxide was obtained by heating 1.31 g of calcium carbonate. What is the percent yield for this reaction?

CaCO 3 ( s ) CaO ( s ) + CO 2 ( s )

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Freon-12, CCl 2 F 2 , is prepared from CCl 4 by reaction with HF. The other product of this reaction is HCl. Outline the steps needed to determine the percent yield of a reaction that produces 12.5 g of CCl 2 F 2 from 32.9 g of CCl 4 . Freon-12 has been banned and is no longer used as a refrigerant because it catalyzes the decomposition of ozone and has a very long lifetime in the atmosphere. Determine the percent yield.

g CCl 4 mol CCl 4 mol CCl 2 F 2 g CCl 2 F 2 , percent yield = 48.3%

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Citric acid, C 6 H 8 O 7 , a component of jams, jellies, and fruity soft drinks, is prepared industrially via fermentation of sucrose by the mold Aspergillus niger . The equation representing this reaction is
C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O + 3 O 2 2 C 6 H 8 O 7 + 4 H 2 O

What mass of citric acid is produced from exactly 1 metric ton (1.000 × 10 3 kg) of sucrose if the yield is 92.30%?

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Toluene, C 6 H 5 CH 3 , is oxidized by air under carefully controlled conditions to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 CO 2 H, which is used to prepare the food preservative sodium benzoate, C 6 H 5 CO 2 Na. What is the percent yield of a reaction that converts 1.000 kg of toluene to 1.21 kg of benzoic acid?

2 C 6 H 5 CH 3 + 3 O 2 2 C 6 H 5 CO 2 H + 2 H 2 O

percent yield = 91.3%

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In a laboratory experiment, the reaction of 3.0 mol of H 2 with 2.0 mol of I 2 produced 1.0 mol of HI. Determine the theoretical yield in grams and the percent yield for this reaction.

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Outline the steps needed to solve the following problem, then do the calculations. Ether, (C 2 H 5 ) 2 O, which was originally used as an anesthetic but has been replaced by safer and more effective medications, is prepared by the reaction of ethanol with sulfuric acid.

2C 2 H 5 OH + H 2 SO 4 ⟶ (C 2 H 5 ) 2 + H 2 SO 4 ·H 2 O

What is the percent yield of ether if 1.17 L (d = 0.7134 g/mL) is isolated from the reaction of 1.500 L of C 2 H 5 OH
(d = 0.7894 g/mL)?

Convert mass of ethanol to moles of ethanol; relate the moles of ethanol to the moles of ether produced using the stoichiometry of the balanced equation. Convert moles of ether to grams; divide the actual grams of ether (determined through the density) by the theoretical mass to determine the percent yield; 87.6%

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Outline the steps needed to determine the limiting reactant when 30.0 g of propane, C 3 H 8 , is burned with 75.0 g of oxygen.

Determine the limiting reactant.

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Outline the steps needed to determine the limiting reactant when 0.50 mol of Cr and 0.75 mol of H 3 PO 4 react according to the following chemical equation.
2 Cr + 2 H 3 PO 4 2 CrPO 4 + 3 H 2

Determine the limiting reactant.

The conversion needed is mol Cr mol H 3 PO 4 . Then compare the amount of Cr to the amount of acid present. Cr is the limiting reactant.

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What is the limiting reactant when 1.50 g of lithium and 1.50 g of nitrogen combine to form lithium nitride, a component of advanced batteries, according to the following unbalanced equation?
Li + N 2 Li 3 N

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Uranium can be isolated from its ores by dissolving it as UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , then separating it as solid UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )·3H 2 O. Addition of 0.4031 g of sodium oxalate, Na 2 C 2 O 4 , to a solution containing 1.481 g of uranyl nitrate, UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , yields 1.073 g of solid UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )·3H 2 O.

Na 2 C 2 O 4 + UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 + 3H 2 O ⟶ UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )·3H 2 O + 2NaNO 3

Determine the limiting reactant and the percent yield of this reaction.

Na 2 C 2 O 4 is the limiting reactant. percent yield = 86.6%

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How many molecules of C 2 H 4 Cl 2 can be prepared from 15 C 2 H 4 molecules and 8 Cl 2 molecules?

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How many molecules of the sweetener saccharin can be prepared from 30 C atoms, 25 H atoms, 12 O atoms, 8 S atoms, and 14 N atoms?

A structural formula is shown. A hexagonal ring of 6 C atoms with alternating double bonds has single H atoms bonded to four consecutive C atoms on the left side of the ring. The two C atoms on the right side of the ring, which are joined by a double bond, are also included in a 5 atom ring to their right. The C atom of this pair that is nearest the top of the structure is singly bonded to a C atom at the top of the 5 atom ring which has an O atom double bonded above. An N atom is singly bonded to the lower right of this same C atom. The N atom has an H atom bonded to its right and to its lower left, it is bonded to an S atom. The S atom is connected to the second C atom that is shared in the two rings. The S atom is also double bonded to an O atom to its lower right and is double bonded to a second O atom directly below it.

Only four molecules can be made.

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The phosphorus pentoxide used to produce phosphoric acid for cola soft drinks is prepared by burning phosphorus in oxygen.

(a) What is the limiting reactant when 0.200 mol of P 4 and 0.200 mol of O 2 react according to P 4 + 5 O 2 P 4 O 10

(b) Calculate the percent yield if 10.0 g of P 4 O 10 is isolated from the reaction.

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Would you agree to buy 1 trillion (1,000,000,000,000) gold atoms for $5? Explain why or why not. Find the current price of gold at http://money.cnn.com/data/commodities/ ( 1 troy ounce = 31.1 g )

This amount cannot be weighted by ordinary balances and is worthless.

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Questions & Answers

what is chemistry?
Archie Reply
forms of biotechnology
Ocheme Reply
What is a mole?
Henry Reply
pls give me 3 type of transition metal
Destiny Reply
Copper, Scandium, Vanadium, Iron, Chromium, Cobalt
Jumaane-Kalif
ion zinc hydrogen
Abdul
that is not true
Jumaane-Kalif
stop posting foolishness
Jumaane-Kalif
how do I name compounds
Stanley Reply
depends on the compound. as you may know there's transition metal compounds and there's organic compounds and so on and so forth.
Jumaane-Kalif
what is electricity
Lorrita Reply
electricity refers to the flow electrons
John
Hi. please can you tell me more on chemical equation
Gift Reply
When 1 or 2 chemicals react, they rearrange their atomic composition forming new compounds. The total mass before and after is the same/ constant. Chemical equations of same reactants react in same ratios e.g. 1 Na ion reacts with 1 water molecule or a multipier like 1 mole of Na ions react with 1
Abdelkarim
Mole of water molecules. In that example we multipied by 6.02*10^23 or avogadro constant (L). Or 2 Na+ ions with two water molecules. The arrow means '' to form '' Some times conditions or reactants are written above the arrow like H+ or enzyme or temper, sometimes physical states are written
Abdelkarim
Beside the chemical Aqueous (aq) which means solute dissolved on water. Solid (s) etc Some chemical equations are written next to it ΔH= # which means enthalpy change which describes if the reaction is endothermic (+) or exothermic (-).
Abdelkarim
Some are reversible and have half double arrow sign.
Abdelkarim
what is the meaning of atoma
Ibrahim Reply
what is theory
Michael Reply
what is chemical compound
Lorrita
A compound is the result of chemical bonding between 2 or more different elements.
Abdelkarim
Why is an atom electrically neutral?
Clara
the same number of electron , proton present in an atom.thats why it is electrically neutral
debibandita
difference between Amine and amide
Amadu Reply
what is the difference between alkanal and alkanone
Amadu
difference between alkanol and alkanal
Michael
whaatt
Saturday
you are not well at all
Ibrahim
is organic compounds used for drying agent
Olawale Reply
Sulfuric acid is used as a drying agent.
Abdelkarim
what is an atom
John Reply
An atom is the smallest part of an element, for instance gold atoms are the smallest part of gold that can enter a reaction. An atom must consist protons and electrons of equal number. You can think of those subatomic particles as spheres, but not orbiting randomly they move in specific way in
Abdelkarim
That was partially described mathematically. As a muslim, we believe that god created all matter from nothing. He is the Able, and only who can create matter in the begging in the big bang that was described in the Quran in chapter 17 verse 30, 1400 years ago, you can read it from internet.
Abdelkarim
what is electron affinity
John
do you have a private jet
Ibrahim
what is acid
Olubodun Reply
Proton donor (H+). Like in lemons, oranges and some medicines.
Abdelkarim
what is titration? and how can i get my readings?
favor Reply
what is electrolysis?
favor Reply
what is the formula you use when calculating for gas law?
favor
PV=nrt
Farid
electro-means electricity while lysis-means splitting up so electrolysis simply means splitting up by means of electric current
John
good day. how may I see previous question asked in this chat, please?
Asha
Asha, A person named Favor asked what is meant by the term electrolysis
John
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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