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Key concepts and summary

The equilibrium constant for an equilibrium involving the precipitation or dissolution of a slightly soluble ionic solid is called the solubility product, K sp , of the solid. When we have a heterogeneous equilibrium involving the slightly soluble solid M p X q and its ions M m+ and X n– :

M p X q ( s ) p M m+ ( a q ) + q X n− ( a q )

We write the solubility product expression as:

K sp = [M m+ ] p [X n− ] q

The solubility product of a slightly soluble electrolyte can be calculated from its solubility; conversely, its solubility can be calculated from its K sp , provided the only significant reaction that occurs when the solid dissolves is the formation of its ions.

A slightly soluble electrolyte begins to precipitate when the magnitude of the reaction quotient for the dissolution reaction exceeds the magnitude of the solubility product. Precipitation continues until the reaction quotient equals the solubility product.

A reagent can be added to a solution of ions to allow one ion to selectively precipitate out of solution. The common ion effect can also play a role in precipitation reactions. In the presence of an ion in common with one of the ions in the solution, Le Châtelier’s principle applies and more precipitate comes out of solution so that the molar solubility is reduced.

Key equations

  • M p X q ( s ) p M m+ ( a q ) + q X n− ( a q ) K sp = [ M m+ ] p [ X n− ] q

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Complete the changes in concentrations for each of the following reactions:

(a) AgI ( s ) Ag + ( a q ) + I ( a q ) x _____

(b) CaCO 3 ( s ) Ca 2+ ( a q ) + CO 3 2− ( a q ) ____ x

(c) Mg ( OH ) 2 ( s ) Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2 OH ( a q ) x _____

(d) Mg 3 ( PO 4 ) 2 ( s ) 3 Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2 PO 4 3− ( a q ) x _____

(e) Ca 5 ( PO 4 ) 3 OH ( s ) 5 Ca 2+ ( a q ) + 3 PO 4 3− ( a q ) + OH ( a q ) _____ _____ x

(a) AgI ( s ) Ag + ( a q ) + I ( a q ) x x _
(b) CaCO 3 ( s ) Ca 2+ ( a q ) + CO 3 2− ( a q ) x _ x
(c) Mg ( OH ) 2 ( s ) Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2 OH ( a q ) x 2 x _
(d) Mg 3 ( PO 4 ) 2 ( s ) 3Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2PO 4 3− ( a q ) 3 x _ 2 x
(e) Ca 5 ( PO 4 ) 3 OH ( s ) 5Ca 2+ ( a q ) + 3PO 4 3− ( a q ) + OH ( a q ) 5 x _ 3 x _ x

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Complete the changes in concentrations for each of the following reactions:

(a) BaSO 4 ( s ) Ba 2+ ( a q ) + SO 4 2− ( a q ) x _____

(b) Ag 2 SO 4 ( s ) 2 Ag + ( a q ) + SO 4 2− ( a q ) _____ x

(c) Al ( OH ) 3 ( s ) Al 3+ ( a q ) + 3 OH ( a q ) x _____

(d) Pb ( OH ) Cl ( s ) Pb 2+ ( a q ) + OH ( a q ) + Cl ( a q ) _____ x _____

(e) Ca 3 ( AsO 4 ) 2 ( s ) 3 Ca 2+ ( a q ) + 2 AsO 4 3− ( a q ) 3 x _____

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How do the concentrations of Ag + and CrO 4 2− in a saturated solution above 1.0 g of solid Ag 2 CrO 4 change when 100 g of solid Ag 2 CrO 4 is added to the system? Explain.

There is no change. A solid has an activity of 1 whether there is a little or a lot.

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How do the concentrations of Pb 2+ and S 2– change when K 2 S is added to a saturated solution of PbS?

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What additional information do we need to answer the following question: How is the equilibrium of solid silver bromide with a saturated solution of its ions affected when the temperature is raised?

The solubility of silver bromide at the new temperature must be known. Normally the solubility increases and some of the solid silver bromide will dissolve.

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Which of the following slightly soluble compounds has a solubility greater than that calculated from its solubility product because of hydrolysis of the anion present: CoSO 3 , CuI, PbCO 3 , PbCl 2 , Tl 2 S, KClO 4 ?

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Questions & Answers

what is chemistry?
Archie Reply
forms of biotechnology
Ocheme Reply
What is a mole?
Henry Reply
pls give me 3 type of transition metal
Destiny Reply
Copper, Scandium, Vanadium, Iron, Chromium, Cobalt
Jumaane-Kalif
ion zinc hydrogen
Abdul
that is not true
Jumaane-Kalif
stop posting foolishness
Jumaane-Kalif
how do I name compounds
Stanley Reply
depends on the compound. as you may know there's transition metal compounds and there's organic compounds and so on and so forth.
Jumaane-Kalif
what is electricity
Lorrita Reply
electricity refers to the flow electrons
John
Hi. please can you tell me more on chemical equation
Gift Reply
When 1 or 2 chemicals react, they rearrange their atomic composition forming new compounds. The total mass before and after is the same/ constant. Chemical equations of same reactants react in same ratios e.g. 1 Na ion reacts with 1 water molecule or a multipier like 1 mole of Na ions react with 1
Abdelkarim
Mole of water molecules. In that example we multipied by 6.02*10^23 or avogadro constant (L). Or 2 Na+ ions with two water molecules. The arrow means '' to form '' Some times conditions or reactants are written above the arrow like H+ or enzyme or temper, sometimes physical states are written
Abdelkarim
Beside the chemical Aqueous (aq) which means solute dissolved on water. Solid (s) etc Some chemical equations are written next to it ΔH= # which means enthalpy change which describes if the reaction is endothermic (+) or exothermic (-).
Abdelkarim
Some are reversible and have half double arrow sign.
Abdelkarim
what is the meaning of atoma
Ibrahim Reply
what is theory
Michael Reply
what is chemical compound
Lorrita
A compound is the result of chemical bonding between 2 or more different elements.
Abdelkarim
Why is an atom electrically neutral?
Clara
the same number of electron , proton present in an atom.thats why it is electrically neutral
debibandita
difference between Amine and amide
Amadu Reply
what is the difference between alkanal and alkanone
Amadu
difference between alkanol and alkanal
Michael
whaatt
Saturday
you are not well at all
Ibrahim
is organic compounds used for drying agent
Olawale Reply
Sulfuric acid is used as a drying agent.
Abdelkarim
what is an atom
John Reply
An atom is the smallest part of an element, for instance gold atoms are the smallest part of gold that can enter a reaction. An atom must consist protons and electrons of equal number. You can think of those subatomic particles as spheres, but not orbiting randomly they move in specific way in
Abdelkarim
That was partially described mathematically. As a muslim, we believe that god created all matter from nothing. He is the Able, and only who can create matter in the begging in the big bang that was described in the Quran in chapter 17 verse 30, 1400 years ago, you can read it from internet.
Abdelkarim
what is electron affinity
John
do you have a private jet
Ibrahim
what is acid
Olubodun Reply
Proton donor (H+). Like in lemons, oranges and some medicines.
Abdelkarim
what is titration? and how can i get my readings?
favor Reply
what is electrolysis?
favor Reply
what is the formula you use when calculating for gas law?
favor
PV=nrt
Farid
electro-means electricity while lysis-means splitting up so electrolysis simply means splitting up by means of electric current
John
good day. how may I see previous question asked in this chat, please?
Asha
Asha, A person named Favor asked what is meant by the term electrolysis
John
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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