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Key concepts and summary

Measurements are made using a variety of units. It is often useful or necessary to convert a measured quantity from one unit into another. These conversions are accomplished using unit conversion factors, which are derived by simple applications of a mathematical approach called the factor-label method or dimensional analysis. This strategy is also employed to calculate sought quantities using measured quantities and appropriate mathematical relations.

Key equations

  • T °C = 5 9 × T °F 32
  • T °F = 9 5 × T °C + 32
  • T K = °C + 273.15
  • T °C = K 273.15

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Write conversion factors (as ratios) for the number of:

(a) yards in 1 meter

(b) liters in 1 liquid quart

(c) pounds in 1 kilogram

(a) 1.0936 yd 1 m ; (b) 0.94635 L 1 qt ; (c) 2.2046 lb 1 kg

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Write conversion factors (as ratios) for the number of:

(a) kilometers in 1 mile

(b) liters in 1 cubic foot

(c) grams in 1 ounce

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The label on a soft drink bottle gives the volume in two units: 2.0 L and 67.6 fl oz. Use this information to derive a conversion factor between the English and metric units. How many significant figures can you justify in your conversion factor?

2.0 L 67.6 fl oz = 0.030 L 1 fl oz
Only two significant figures are justified.

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The label on a box of cereal gives the mass of cereal in two units: 978 grams and 34.5 oz. Use this information to find a conversion factor between the English and metric units. How many significant figures can you justify in your conversion factor?

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Soccer is played with a round ball having a circumference between 27 and 28 in. and a weight between 14 and 16 oz. What are these specifications in units of centimeters and grams?

68–71 cm; 400–450 g

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A woman's basketball has a circumference between 28.5 and 29.0 inches and a maximum weight of 20 ounces (two significant figures). What are these specifications in units of centimeters and grams?

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How many milliliters of a soft drink are contained in a 12.0-oz can?

355 mL

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A barrel of oil is exactly 42 gal. How many liters of oil are in a barrel?

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The diameter of a red blood cell is about 3 × 10 −4 in. What is its diameter in centimeters?

8 × 10 −4 cm

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The distance between the centers of the two oxygen atoms in an oxygen molecule is 1.21 × 10 −8 cm. What is this distance in inches?

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Is a 197-lb weight lifter light enough to compete in a class limited to those weighing 90 kg or less?

yes; weight = 89.4 kg

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A very good 197-lb weight lifter lifted 192 kg in a move called the clean and jerk. What was the mass of the weight lifted in pounds?

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Many medical laboratory tests are run using 5.0 μL blood serum. What is this volume in milliliters?

5.0 × 10 −3 mL

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If an aspirin tablet contains 325 mg aspirin, how many grams of aspirin does it contain?

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Use scientific (exponential) notation to express the following quantities in terms of the SI base units in [link] :

(a) 0.13 g

(b) 232 Gg

(c) 5.23 pm

(d) 86.3 mg

(e) 37.6 cm

(f) 54 μm

(g) 1 Ts

(h) 27 ps

(i) 0.15 mK

(a) 1.3 × 10 −4 kg; (b) 2.32 × 10 8 kg; (c) 5.23 × 10 −12 m; (d) 8.63 × 10 −5 kg; (e) 3.76 × 10 −1 m; (f) 5.4 × 10 −5 m; (g) 1 × 10 12 s; (h) 2.7 × 10 −11 s; (i) 1.5 × 10 −4 K

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Questions & Answers

give two properties of liquid
Grace Reply
what is measurement
Isaiah Reply
is the comparison of an unknown quantity with a fixed quantity of the same kind
Sahada
How does an element differ from a compound? How are they similar?
Adeola Reply
an element is an indivisible particles that can take part in a reaction and consist of smaller or tiny particles i.e proton, neutrons and electron while a compound is when two or more element chemically combine together. They are similar when they are homogeneous compound. they take the same rxn.
Yusuf
an element is s chemically pure substance containing a particular type of atoms.. A COMPOUND is a substance containing atoms from different elements..
Inemesit
How to get the Lewis formula of SeCl+3
Erica Reply
hi,I'm new here can I join the conversation
EZEA
what is the structural formula for starch
EZEA Reply
Starch is a mixture (of chemicals) of amylose and amylopectin. Both are macromolecules and polymers. You can search on wikipedia.
Abdelkarim
what is the roles of filter bed
Fathmat
what is the roles of Alu m
Fathmat
what is the roles of chlorine
Fathmat
Roles can be classified or correlate it to different areas: For example: Chlorine can be used in reactions (in industry) to manufacture HCl, which then can be used for other things. Or in swimming pools to kill bacteria. Or as a component in compounds with pharmaceutical roles (drugs). For Al:
Abdelkarim
Its dentisty value is suitable to be used in alloys (mixture of metals) in aircraft bodies. Also, Aluminium foils, Tin cans,.. Some of them are also in Al overhead cables in streets and long roads.
Abdelkarim
what is chemistry
Maxamed
what is the meaning of exceedingly
Yushao Reply
it is an adverb which means extremely
Rohini
what is atomic chemistry?
Gladys Reply
Lewis structure for no3
Gladys
Lewis structure for no3
Gladys
what is weak acid
Muhammed Reply
It is an acid which partially ionises in water.
Abdelkarim
what is incandescence
Clifton
what makes it glow
Clifton
why is it red, irange and yellow in color
Clifton
hello am new here and I want to join you
Aliyu
hello
Clifton
hi
Aliyu
too
Gillian
hello i am new here please i want to join this group
Paul
Hi, I'm also new here
Salaudeen
Hi
Keeya
hello guys !!
Sourav
what is pressure?
Slark Reply
The force applied to suction Area of the body
Ahmed
Matter composed of exceedingly small paticle called atom.
Yushao
questions related to metals
Regina Reply
occurrence and preparation of the representatives metals
Regina
list the 20, periodic table and their symbols
Fathmat Reply
hydrogen:h helium;he lithium:l beryllium:be Boron:b Carbon;C Nitrogen:n Oxygen:O FLUORINE:f Neon:n Sodium:s Magnesium:mg Aluminum:a Silicon:s Phosphorus:p Sulphur:s Chlorine:c Argon;a Potassium:p Calcium:c
Benita
Hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, argon, potassium, calcium
Cudjoe
what is a solute
Ekezie Reply
Any substance that is disolved in a liqid solvent to create a solution
Fifa
sorry liquid
Fifa
it's a liquid substance
Fathmat
hello group
Ayomide
is the substance that dissolves in the solvent
Amos
so is HCl ionic compound
Honest Reply
No, covalent compound ➡️ molecule. As both H and Cl are non-metals and and form covalent bind by sharing valence e-. But can fully ionice in water forming H+ (a proton, a reason for acidity) and Cl- (anion =Chloride) Hydrogen Chloride is a gas at room; Hydrochloric acid = HCl (aq), dissolved in w
Abdelkarim
Form covalenr bond*
Abdelkarim
The question marks are an emoji in the first sentence is an unread emoji. HCl Covalent compund -> molecule
Abdelkarim
Hi.
Queen
Hi
Calvin
Yh
Cudjoe
yes
Amos
what is chemistry
Chukwu Reply
is the study of composition of substances and the way they behave under different conditions
Amos
how do calculate n1 though n6 any help on understanding the concept
Clifton
is the study of properties of matter and it's component
Grace
where can I get the test bank or mcqs ? any idea ?
Sourav Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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