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Key concepts and summary

Energy is the capacity to do work (applying a force to move matter). Kinetic energy (KE) is the energy of motion; potential energy is energy due to relative position, composition, or condition. When energy is converted from one form into another, energy is neither created nor destroyed (law of conservation of energy or first law of thermodynamics).

Matter has thermal energy due to the KE of its molecules and temperature that corresponds to the average KE of its molecules. Heat is energy that is transferred between objects at different temperatures; it flows from a high to a low temperature. Chemical and physical processes can absorb heat (endothermic) or release heat (exothermic). The SI unit of energy, heat, and work is the joule (J).

Specific heat and heat capacity are measures of the energy needed to change the temperature of a substance or object. The amount of heat absorbed or released by a substance depends directly on the type of substance, its mass, and the temperature change it undergoes.

Key equations

  • q = c × m × Δ T = c × m × ( T final T initial )

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

A burning match and a bonfire may have the same temperature, yet you would not sit around a burning match on a fall evening to stay warm. Why not?

The temperature of 1 gram of burning wood is approximately the same for both a match and a bonfire. This is an intensive property and depends on the material (wood). However, the overall amount of produced heat depends on the amount of material; this is an extensive property. The amount of wood in a bonfire is much greater than that in a match; the total amount of produced heat is also much greater, which is why we can sit around a bonfire to stay warm, but a match would not provide enough heat to keep us from getting cold.

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Prepare a table identifying several energy transitions that take place during the typical operation of an automobile.

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Explain the difference between heat capacity and specific heat of a substance.

Heat capacity refers to the heat required to raise the temperature of the mass of the substance 1 degree; specific heat refers to the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance 1 degree. Thus, heat capacity is an extensive property, and specific heat is an intensive one.

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Calculate the heat capacity, in joules and in calories per degree, of the following:

(a) 28.4 g of water

(b) 1.00 oz of lead

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Calculate the heat capacity, in joules and in calories per degree, of the following:

(a) 45.8 g of nitrogen gas

(b) 1.00 pound of aluminum metal

(a) 47.6 J/°C; 11.38 cal °C −1 ; (b) 407 J/°C; 97.3 cal °C −1

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How much heat, in joules and in calories, must be added to a 75.0–g iron block with a specific heat of 0.449 J/g °C to increase its temperature from 25 °C to its melting temperature of 1535 °C?

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How much heat, in joules and in calories, is required to heat a 28.4-g (1-oz) ice cube from −23.0 °C to −1.0 °C?

1310; 313 cal

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How much would the temperature of 275 g of water increase if 36.5 kJ of heat were added?

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If 14.5 kJ of heat were added to 485 g of liquid water, how much would its temperature increase?

7.15 °C

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A piece of unknown substance weighs 44.7 g and requires 2110 J to increase its temperature from 23.2 °C to 89.6 °C.

(a) What is the specific heat of the substance?

(b) If it is one of the substances found in [link] , what is its likely identity?

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A piece of unknown solid substance weighs 437.2 g, and requires 8460 J to increase its temperature from 19.3 °C to 68.9 °C.

(a) What is the specific heat of the substance?

(b) If it is one of the substances found in [link] , what is its likely identity?

(a) 0.390 J/g °C; (b) Copper is a likely candidate.

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An aluminum kettle weighs 1.05 kg.

(a) What is the heat capacity of the kettle?

(b) How much heat is required to increase the temperature of this kettle from 23.0 °C to 99.0 °C?

(c) How much heat is required to heat this kettle from 23.0 °C to 99.0 °C if it contains 1.25 L of water (density of 0.997 g/mL and a specific heat of 4.184 J/g °C)?

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Most people find waterbeds uncomfortable unless the water temperature is maintained at about 85 °F. Unless it is heated, a waterbed that contains 892 L of water cools from 85 °F to 72 °F in 24 hours. Estimate the amount of electrical energy required over 24 hours, in kWh, to keep the bed from cooling. Note that 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.6 × 10 6 J, and assume that the density of water is 1.0 g/mL (independent of temperature). What other assumptions did you make? How did they affect your calculated result (i.e., were they likely to yield “positive” or “negative” errors)?

We assume that the density of water is 1.0 g/cm 3 (1 g/mL) and that it takes as much energy to keep the water at 85 °F as to heat it from 72 °F to 85 °F. We also assume that only the water is going to be heated. Energy required = 7.47 kWh

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Questions & Answers

how can someone understand chemistry vividly
Mercy Reply
Maybe by reading proofs or practical work and application in modern world.
Abdelkarim
what is isotopes
Samuel Reply
whats de shape of water
Amara Reply
water has no shape because it's liquid
Wil
water is a shapeless, odourless, colourless and tasteless substance that only takes the shape of its container.
mikefred
i think they're referring to the molecular shape?
It has no shape but takes the shape of the container
kpadonu
what isthe maening pkw
Wilson Reply
introduction to chemistry for beginner
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hi
noble
through out human history
marwan Reply
Yes?
Esther
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noble
yes
Bol
what
noble
is euglena a unicellular organ
Agio Reply
is euglena a unicellular organism
Agio
how is hydrogen can be heated
Buwembo Reply
what is difference between atom and molecule
Aqeela Reply
Atom is the smallest part of matter; it consists of equal number of protons and electrons. It may have neutrons. A molecule is a compound made of atoms covalently bonded.
Abdelkarim
does amoeba has structure
Mercy Reply
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kolawole Reply
what is the effect of green house on the earth 🌎
kolawole
what's an atom?
Davy Reply
it's the smallest unit of Matter
Orsine
atom
Eden
smallest part of an element
lydia
also, depending on its (atom's) structure, that is the amount of protons and neutrons and electrons, is the determining factors of what element it is.
Richard
is a smallast particals of an element
Buwembo
it is the smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction
Ayub
is the smallest part of an element
Jonathan
An atom is the smallest indivisible part of a matter
kpadonu
Oy kl konsa test hay or kitna hay?
Faisal Reply
differences between solid liquid and gaseous state
Ochei Reply
modification of John dalton atomic theory
Ochei
the differences between soliq liquid and gas is that in solid the particle are strongly bonded together by forces of cohesion and the particle are not able to move about but only vibrate in a fixed position but in liquid the particle are loosely bond together and the particle are able to move about
kolawole
2.4g of magnesium reacts with 0.3mol of hydrochloric acid write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (b)Determine the limiting reactant
Sheldon Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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