# 5.1 Energy basics  (Page 7/21)

 Page 7 / 21

## Key concepts and summary

Energy is the capacity to do work (applying a force to move matter). Kinetic energy (KE) is the energy of motion; potential energy is energy due to relative position, composition, or condition. When energy is converted from one form into another, energy is neither created nor destroyed (law of conservation of energy or first law of thermodynamics).

Matter has thermal energy due to the KE of its molecules and temperature that corresponds to the average KE of its molecules. Heat is energy that is transferred between objects at different temperatures; it flows from a high to a low temperature. Chemical and physical processes can absorb heat (endothermic) or release heat (exothermic). The SI unit of energy, heat, and work is the joule (J).

Specific heat and heat capacity are measures of the energy needed to change the temperature of a substance or object. The amount of heat absorbed or released by a substance depends directly on the type of substance, its mass, and the temperature change it undergoes.

## Key equations

• $q=c\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}m\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Δ}\text{T}=c\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}m\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\left({T}_{\text{final}}-{T}_{\text{initial}}\right)$

## Chemistry end of chapter exercises

A burning match and a bonfire may have the same temperature, yet you would not sit around a burning match on a fall evening to stay warm. Why not?

The temperature of 1 gram of burning wood is approximately the same for both a match and a bonfire. This is an intensive property and depends on the material (wood). However, the overall amount of produced heat depends on the amount of material; this is an extensive property. The amount of wood in a bonfire is much greater than that in a match; the total amount of produced heat is also much greater, which is why we can sit around a bonfire to stay warm, but a match would not provide enough heat to keep us from getting cold.

Prepare a table identifying several energy transitions that take place during the typical operation of an automobile.

Explain the difference between heat capacity and specific heat of a substance.

Heat capacity refers to the heat required to raise the temperature of the mass of the substance 1 degree; specific heat refers to the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance 1 degree. Thus, heat capacity is an extensive property, and specific heat is an intensive one.

Calculate the heat capacity, in joules and in calories per degree, of the following:

(a) 28.4 g of water

Calculate the heat capacity, in joules and in calories per degree, of the following:

(a) 45.8 g of nitrogen gas

(b) 1.00 pound of aluminum metal

(a) 47.6 J/°C; 11.38 cal °C −1 ; (b) 407 J/°C; 97.3 cal °C −1

How much heat, in joules and in calories, must be added to a 75.0–g iron block with a specific heat of 0.449 J/g °C to increase its temperature from 25 °C to its melting temperature of 1535 °C?

How much heat, in joules and in calories, is required to heat a 28.4-g (1-oz) ice cube from −23.0 °C to −1.0 °C?

1310; 313 cal

How much would the temperature of 275 g of water increase if 36.5 kJ of heat were added?

If 14.5 kJ of heat were added to 485 g of liquid water, how much would its temperature increase?

7.15 °C

A piece of unknown substance weighs 44.7 g and requires 2110 J to increase its temperature from 23.2 °C to 89.6 °C.

(a) What is the specific heat of the substance?

(b) If it is one of the substances found in [link] , what is its likely identity?

A piece of unknown solid substance weighs 437.2 g, and requires 8460 J to increase its temperature from 19.3 °C to 68.9 °C.

(a) What is the specific heat of the substance?

(b) If it is one of the substances found in [link] , what is its likely identity?

(a) 0.390 J/g °C; (b) Copper is a likely candidate.

An aluminum kettle weighs 1.05 kg.

(a) What is the heat capacity of the kettle?

(b) How much heat is required to increase the temperature of this kettle from 23.0 °C to 99.0 °C?

(c) How much heat is required to heat this kettle from 23.0 °C to 99.0 °C if it contains 1.25 L of water (density of 0.997 g/mL and a specific heat of 4.184 J/g °C)?

Most people find waterbeds uncomfortable unless the water temperature is maintained at about 85 °F. Unless it is heated, a waterbed that contains 892 L of water cools from 85 °F to 72 °F in 24 hours. Estimate the amount of electrical energy required over 24 hours, in kWh, to keep the bed from cooling. Note that 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.6 $×$ 10 6 J, and assume that the density of water is 1.0 g/mL (independent of temperature). What other assumptions did you make? How did they affect your calculated result (i.e., were they likely to yield “positive” or “negative” errors)?

We assume that the density of water is 1.0 g/cm 3 (1 g/mL) and that it takes as much energy to keep the water at 85 °F as to heat it from 72 °F to 85 °F. We also assume that only the water is going to be heated. Energy required = 7.47 kWh

what is matter
apart from those device there is there any device
how many elements do we have
Modern Electronic Theory
a new way or an improvement in modern electrical products.
Andrew
find the volume of oxygen produced from the electrolysis of acidified water of a current of a 2A was passed through the electrolysis of acidified water for 2 hours
14400J
Ese
wrong question, go through it. oxygen cannot be produced.
Andrew
A group of atoms that are connected by chemical bounds
molecule
NARCOS_
the atoms are found in the shell, it is called atomic bond.
Andrew
what is molecules
what atoms
Simon
Moecules are groups of atoms
atom is the smallest part of an element or matter that indivisible
Ese
What is collision theory
hello guys am new here
what is the si unit for energy
joules
udoh
what is Charles law
Ogbu
how do mass of solvent be gram or kilogram ?
by converting
Andrew
its a force a gas exerts on the wall of the container
compressed it is
Andrew
what is gas pressure
the pressure is the amount of Gas that is compressed in the container. in other words because of the gas that is compressed in the container there is pressure on it.
Andrew
write the electron configuration for probium
what is an accuracy
what is it
Nhagn
accuracy has to do with speed
Emmanuel
accuracy is the movement of an object in a particular direction without any obstructions.
Andrew By By By By     By By By By